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Alachua 

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1974 

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Planning Council \^ 



COUNCIL MEMBERSHIP 
1974 



OFFICERS 

Clayton C. Curtis, Chairman 

Robert J. Spence, VIce-Chairman 

Ralph W. Kluge, Secretary-Treasurer 




Jack Durrance 

Robert H. Cato 

Clayton C. Curtis 
Samuel N. Holloway 

Carnell C. Henderson 

E. G. Cann 



ALACHUA COUNTY 

CITY OF ALACHUA 

CITY OF GAINESVILLE 

CITY OF HAWTHORNE 
CITY OF HIGH SPRINGS 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS 

North Central Florida 
Health Planning Council 
Governor's Council on 
Criminal Justice - Region II 
Alachua County 
City of Gainesville 

Citizen Participation 
Committee 



Ralph Kluge 

Glenn DuBois 

James G. Richardson 

Robert J. Spence 
E. H. Petteway 

John M. Champion 

Wayland Clifton, Jr. 

C. O. Morgan 

Norman J. Bowman 

G. Alan Hardin 

W. T. Coram 



Charles F. Justice 
Philip J. Hughey 
Alan L. Csontos 
Roy E. Brewer 
Charles L. Kiester 
Jan E. McGee 
Tommie M. George 
Marilyn Crumley 
Ruby Marshall 
Terry Trussell 
Trevor D. Splane 
Mark Druash 



COUNCIL STAFF 
1974 

Executive Director 

Assistant Director 

Environmental Planner 

Regional Planner 

Regional Planner 

Health Planning Coordinator 

Executive Secretary 

Secretary II 

Bookkeeper 

Graphics Coordinator 

Planning Technician 

Planning Technician 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA 
SHEET 



1. Report No. 

NCFRPC 74 003 



3. Recipient's Accession No. 



4. Title and Subt itle 



Water and Flood Plain Management Study for the 
Gainesville Metropolitan Area 



5- ReDort Date 

September, 1974 



7. Author(s) 

Sverdrup & Parcel and Associates, Inc. 



8. Performing Organization Rept. 



No. 



NCFRPC 74 003 



9. Performing Organization Name and Address 

North Central Florida Regional Planning Council 
5 Southwest Second Place 
Gainesville, Florida 32601 



10. Project Task/Work Unit No. 



11. Contract /Grant No. 

CPAFL04 29 1036 



12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address 

Dept. of Housing and Urban Development 
661 Riverside Drive 
Jacksonville, Florida 32204 



13. I ype of Report & Period 
Covered 

FINAL 



14. 



15. Supplementary Notes 



16. Abstracts 

Utilizing previously prepared topographic maps of the 135 square mile Gainesville Metropolitan Area 
(GMA) and based upon field monitoring efforts and historical records the flood channel area for streams 
and flood plain areas for streams and depressions under both existing and proposed future development 
conditions were defined on each map sheet The text consists of a water management plan for the 
GMA and includes recommendations for flood plain and flood channel management, preliminary designs 
and cost estimates of facilities to alleviate major flooding of existing developed areas and recommenda- 
tions appropriate to a comprehensive water management plan. 



17. Key Words and Document Analysis. 17a. Descriptors 

Drainage, Water Management, Flood Plain Management 



17b. Identifiers /Open-Ended Terms 



17c. COSATI Field/Group 



18. Availability Statement 

Available from North Central Florida Regional Panning 
Council, 5 S.W. Second Place, Gainesville, Florida 32601 



19. Security Class (This 
Report) 

UNCLASSIFIED 



20. Security Class (This 
Page 

UNCLASSIFIED 



21. No. of Pages 



22. Price 



FORM NTIS-35 (REV. 3-72) 



THIS FORM MAY BE REPRODUCED 



USCOMM-DC M952-P72 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING FORM NTIS-35 (10-70) (Bibliographic Data Sheet based on COSATI 
Guidelines to Format Standards for Scientific and Technical Reports Prepared by or for the Federal Government, 
PB-180 600). 

1. Report Number. Each individually bound report shall carry a unique alphanumeric designation selected by the performing 
organization or provided by the sponsoring organization. Use uppercase letters and Arabic numerals only. Examples 

rAsrn-N'S-87 and 1- A A- R 0-68-09. 

2. Leave blank. 

3- Recipient's Accession Number. Reserved for use by each report recipient. 

4. Title and Subtitle. Title should indicate clearly and briefly the subject coverage of the report, and be displayed promi- 
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than one volume, repeat the primary title, add volume number and include subtitle for the specific volume. 

5. Report Date. I ach n port shall carry a date indicating at least month and year. Indicate the basis on which it was selected 
M-.g., date of issue, date of approval, date of preparation. 

6. Performing Organization Code. Leave blank. 

7. Author(s). Give name(s) in conventional order (e.g., John R. Doe, or J.Robert Doe). List author's affiliation if it differs 
from the performing organization. 

8. Performing Organization Report Number. Insert if performing organization wishes to assign this number. 

9. Performing Organization Name and Address, dive name, street, city, state, and zip code. List no more than two levels of 
an organizational hierarchy. Display the name of the organization exactly as it should appeat in Government indexes such 
as USGRDR-I. 

10. Project Task Work Unit Number. Use the project, task and work unit numbers under which the report was prepared. 

11. Contract Grant Number, insert contract or grant number under whit h report was prepared. 

12. Sponsoring Agency Nome and Address. Include zip code. 

13. Type of Report and Period Covered. Indicate interim, final, etc., and, if applicable, dates covered. 

14. Sponsoring Agency Code. Leave blank. 

15. Supplementary Notes. Lnter information not included elsewhere but useful, such as: Prepared in cooperation with . . . 
Iranslation of . . . Presented at conference of . . . To be published in . . . Supersedes . . . Supplements . . . 

16. Abstract. Include a brief (200 words or less) factual summary of the most significant information contained in the report. 
ll the report contains a significant bibliography or literature survey, mention it here. 

17. Key Words and Document Analysis, (a). Descriptors. Select from the Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms the 
proper authorized terms that identify the major concept of the research and are sufficiently specific and precise to be used 
as index entries for cataloging. 

(b). Identifiers and Open- Ended Terms. Use identifiers for project names, code names, equipment designators, etc. Use 
open-ended terms written in descriptor form for those subjects for which no descriptor exists. 

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Since the majority of documents are multid isc iplinary in nature, the primary Field /Group assignment(s ) will be the specific 
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I i M . It a n > . 

22. Price. Insert the price set by the National Technical Information -Service or the Government Printing Office, if known. 



FORM NTIS-35 IHEV. 3-7.;i 



USCOMMDC 14»52-P7i 



WATER AND FLOOD PLAIN MANAGEMENT STUDY 

Prepared for the 
NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



By 

Sverdrup & Parcel and Associates, Inc. 
Consulting Engineers 

Gainesville, Florida 



PROJECT NO. 4194 NCFRPC NO. 74-003 

HUD NO. CPA-FL-04-29-1036 



The preparation of this report was financed in part through a comprehensive 
planning grant from the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 
under the provisions of Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, as 
amended. 



Prepared September, 1974, for the North Central Florida Regional Planning CouncU. 



, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Section No. 



Foreword 



Title 



Page No. 



Vll 



Introduction 

A. Background 

B. Method of Study 

C. Sources of Background Data 

Description of the Project Area 

A. General 

B. Physical Data 





1. 


Hogtown Basin 




2. 


Tumblin Basin 




3. 


Sweetwater Basin 




4. 


Lake Forest Basin 




5. 


Calf Pond Basin 




6. 


Little Hatchet Basin 


c. 


Soil 


Description 


D. 


Land Use 



2 
2 

5 
5 
6 
6 

7 
7 

7 
11 



Hydrology of Project Area 

A. General 

B. Rainfall 

C. Ground Water 



14 

14 
14 
14 



V 



^ 



Experimental Program For Determination of Runoff 

Coefficient and Infiltration Rates 17 

A. General 17 

B. Selection of Test Basin 1 7 

C. Runoff Test Basins 1 7 

D. Infiltration Test Basins 19 

E. Hydrological and Meteorological Data Collection 

Program 19 

F. Test Basin Data Collected 20 

Design Criteria and Computer Programs 24 

A. General 24 

B. Frequency of Storm Events 24 

C. Runoff Coefficient 24 

D. Permeability Rates 27 

E. Possible Changes in Runoff Coefficient and Permeability 

Rates 27 

F. Computer Program - Stream Basin Analysis 27 

Water Surface Profile 27 

Stream Runoff Analysis 30 

Flood Routing 31 

Retention Basin Analysis 32 

G. Computer Printout Sheets 33 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
(Continued) 

Section No. Title Page No. 

6 Depression Basins Evaluation and Preliminary Engineering 34 

A. General 34 

B. Evaluation Procedures 34 

C. Depression Basins Omitted 36 

D. Solution Caverns 36 

E. Combined Basins 36 

F. Identification of Existing Development Within 

Flood Plain Limits 48 

7 Stream Basins Evaluation and Preliminary Design 49 

A. General 49 

B. Hogtown Creek 51 

Area ( 1 )- Clear Lake 73 
Area (2) Station 150+00 to Station 219+00 

(Downstream and Upstream of SR 26A) 77 

Area (3) - N. W. 8th Avenue 79 

Area (4) - Springstead Creek at Pine Forest Creek 80 

Area (5) - Possum Creek at N. W. 16th Avenue 81 

Area (6) - Three Lake Creek (& N. W. 34th Street 83 

Other Areas of Concern 83 

Comparison of Runoff Coefficients 85 

C. TumbUn Creek 85 

Other Areas of Concern 93 

Comparison of Runoff Coefficients 93 

D. Sweetwater Branch 94 

Area (1) - S. E. 4th Street 94 

Area (2) - S. E. 7th Avenue, Rosewood Lateral 106 

Area (3) - S. E. 2nd Avenue, Rosewood Lateral 106 

Comparison of Runoff Coefficients 107 

E. Lake Forest Creek 107 

Area (1) - S. E. 26th Terrace 107 

Other Areas of Concern 123 

Comparison of Runoff Coefficients 1 23 

F. Calf Pond Creek 1 23 
Comparison of Runoff Coefficients 1 29 

G. Little Hatchet Creek 1 29 

Area (1) - Little Hatchet Creek - Station 125+00 to 

Station 128+00 140 

Area (2) - Little Hatchet Creek @ Waldo Road 140 

Other Areas of Concern 140 

Comparison of Runoff Coefficient 141 

H. Cost Summary 141 

L Flood Insurance Program 147 

J. Use of In Stream Detention Dams 147 

K. Maintenance Program 147 

L. Continual Monitoring Program of Stream Basins 148 

M. Priority List 148 



1 1 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

(Continued) 

Section No. Title Pa ge No. 

8 Environmental Considerations 149 

A. Introduction 149 
Environmental Assessments of Individual Alternates 149 

B. No Construction 149 

Environmental Impact and Adverse Effects 151 

Environmental Cost Benefit 151 

Short-Term Use and Long— Term Productivity 151 

Commitments of Resources 153 

C. Channelization 153 

Environmental Impact and Adverse Effects 153 " 

Environmental Cost and Benefit 155 

Short— Term Use and Long-Term Productivity 155 

Commitments of Resources 155 

D. Dike and Pump Facilities 155 

Environmental Impact and Adverse Effects 156 

Environmental Cost and Benefit 156 

Short— Term Use and Long-Term Productivity 156 

Commitment of Resources 158 

E. Detention 158 

Environmental Impact and Adverse Effects 158 

Environmental Cost and Benefits 158 

Short-Term Use and Long-Term Productivity 160 

Commitment of Resources 160 

F. Retention Basins 160 

Environmental Impact and Adverse Effects 160 

Cost Benefit 162 

Short-Term Use and Long-Term Productivity 162 

Commitment of Resources 162 

9 Administrative Procedures and Project Funding 164 

A. Administrative 164 

B. Project Funding 164 

(1) General 164 

(2) General Obligation Bonds 165 

(3) Revenue Bonds 165 

(4) Assessment Bonds 165 

(5) Pay-As- You-Go 165 

C. Summary 166 

10 Legal Considerations 167 

A. General 1 67 

B. Legal Authority for a Water Management Program 167 

(1) Alachua County 167 

(2) City of Gainesville 1 68 

C. Legal Considerations Pertaining to Flood Plain 

Zoning and Water Management 168 



111 



Section No. 
11 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
(Continued) 

Title 



12 



Summary and Conelusions 

A. General 

Statement of Condition 
Statement of Need 
Solutions 

B. Computer Program 

C. Depression Basins 

D. Stream Basins 

1. Hogtown Creek 

a) Clear Lake 

b) Downstream from SR 26A West of 34th Street 

c) N. W. 8th Avenue Area 

d) Springstead Creek at Pine Forest Creek 

e) Possum Creek at N. W. 16th Avenue 

Three Lakes Creek @ N. W. 34th Street 

2. Tumblin Creek 
a) U. S. 441 

3. Sweetwater Branch 

a) S. E. 4th Street 

b) S. E. 7th Avenue 

c) S. E. 2nd Avenue 

4. Lake Forest Creek 

a) S. E. 26th Terrace 

5. Calf Pond Creek 

6. Little Hatchet Creek 

E. Environmental Consideration 

F. Legal and Administrative 

Recommendations 
General 

Hogtown Creek Basin 
TumbUn Creek 
Sweetwater Branch 
Lake Forest Creek 
Little Hatchet Creek 
Calf Pond Creek 



Page No. 

170 
170 

170 
170 
170 

171 
171 
171 

172 

172 
173 
173 
173 
174 
174 

174 
174 
175 
175 
175 
175 

176 

176 

176 
176 

177 
177 

178 
178 
179 
180 
180 
180 
180 
180 



I 



IV 



\l 



PLATE NO. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 

15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



LIST OF PLATES 
TITLE 



Study Area and Index of Topographic Maps 

Stream Basin Location Map 

Soil Classification Map 

Proposed Land Use Map 

Piezometric Surface Contour of Floridan Aquifer 
in Study Area 

Test Basins and Rainfall & Stream Gages Location Map 

Rainfall Intensity vs. Duration for 1 Yrs. - 

25 Yr. - 100 Yr. Frequency for 0.25 Hr. to 24 Hr. 

Duration 

Stream Basin Water Management Program Flow Diagram 

Typical Depression Basin Flood Plain Designation 

Typical Stream Basin Flood Channel and Flood 
Plain Designation 

Schematic Diagram of Hogtown Creek 

Location Map of Areas of Flooding to Existing Development 

Stage- Storage Curve Haile Sink Area 

Hogtown Creek - Hydraulic Gradients of Runoff of 
August, 1972 

Schematic Diagram of Tumbhn Creek 

Schematic Diagram of Sweetwater Branch 

Schematic Diagram of Lake Forest Creek 

Schematic Diagram of Calf Pond Creek 

Schematic Diagram of Little Hatchet Creek 

Hydrologic Cycle 

Natural Channels 

Existing Channelization 

Dike and Pump Facilities 

Detention Areas 

Retention Areas 



PAGE NO. 


3 


4 


9 


12 


15 


18 


25 


28 


35 


50 


52 


72 


74 


75 


86 


95 


110 


124 


130 


150 


152 


154 


157 


159 


161 



! 



LIST OF TABLES 



r 

Table No. Title Page No. 

1 Summary of Rainfall in Gainesville Area — I 

for July 1, 1973 to April, 1974 21 ' 

2 Summary of Ground Water Level in Gainesville Area — 

for July, 1973 to April, 1974 23 I 

3 Basins Omitted 37 

4 Solution Cavern Basins 39 - 

5 Combined Basins 40 I 

6 Hogtown Creek - Stream Runoff Analysis Data 53 

7 Hogtown Creek — Summary of Existing Channel Hydraulics I 

& Structures 58 ' 

8 Tumblin Creek - Stream Runoff Analysis Data 87 

9 Tumblin Creek — Summary of Existing Channel Hydraulics P 



& Structures 88 

Sweetv^'ater Branch - Stream Runoff Analysis Data 96 

Sweetwater Branch - Summary of Existing Channel Hydraulics 



f 

& Structures 98 

12 Sweetwater Branch - Summary of Existing Channel Hydraulics ■ 

& Structures With Implementation of Alt. No. 1 Plan 1 08 f 

13 Lake Forest Creek - Stream Runoff Analysis Data 1 1 1 

14 Lake Forest Creek - Summary of Existing Channel Hydraulics | 

& Structures 114 

1 5 Calf Pond - Stream Runoff Analysis Data 1 25 

1 6 Calf Pond Creek - Summary of Existing Channel Hydrauhcs I 

& Structures 1 26 ' 

1 7 Little Hatchet Creek - Stream Runoff Analysis Data 1 3 1 

18 Little Hatchet Creek - Summary of Existing Channel Hydraulics P 

& Structures 132 

19 Cost Summary of Alternate Plans 142 _ 

I 

I 

f 
f 
f 



FOREWORD 



This report is submitted in fulfillment of a contract between the North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council (NCFRPC) and Sverdrup & Parcel and Associates, Inc., dated 
June 1, 1973. 

The report presents a detailed study for the preparation of a Water and Flood Plain 
Management Program for the greater metropolitan area (135 square miles) of Gainesville, 
Florida and as defined by the topographic maps supphed by the NCFRPC. The flood 
channel and flood plain limits were determined for approximately 1200 depression basins 
and six major stream basins in the project area. Areas where flooding of existing 
development will occur were identified, and alternate plans were prepared, including cost 
estimates, to alleviate flooding of the identified areas. Environmental, administrative and 
legal considerations pertaining to the various types of alternate plans, funding, and 
implementation of a water and flood plain management plan are discussed in detail. 



Vll 



SECTION 1 
INTRODUCTION 



A. BACKGROUND 

The City of Gainesville and its urban area within the HUD limits has increased in 
population from approximately 50,000 in 1960 to over 80,000 in 1973. Most of the 
growth has occurred within the drainage basins of six streams. The area's growth 
pattern is now expanding outward from the City into the County jurisdiction where 
many areas are located in depression basins which have no positive drainage outlets. 
Development in the past has been without flood control ordinances. Many houses 
were constructed within the flood plain limits and some buildings that were not 
previously in the flood plain areas are presently encompassed by the increase in 
flood plain Hmits resulting from upstream development. 

The population of the metropolitan area is expected to exceed 100,000 by the year 
1980. The local governing authorities have realized the need for a water and flood 
plain management program to plan and regulate development in the area. This report 
presents the preliminary details necessary for proper formulation of a program. 

B. METHOD OF STUDY 

The method of study may be divided into four major sections. The first section 
involved the collection of background data including soil classification and proposed 
land use plan within the project area. In the second section the basic criteria were 
developed for runoff coefficients and permeabihty rates of soils. Computer programs 
for determining flood channel and flood plain hmits were prepared to permit routine 
up-dating to reflect variations in land use plans or differences in soil classifications. 
The third section is the evaluation of depression and stream basins to determine the 
flood channel and flood plain limits. Existing developments that are located within 
the flood plain limits were identified, and alternate plans to alleviate flooding were 
prepared including cost estimates therefor. The fourth section reviews the 
environmental, administrative, and legal considerations pertaining to the 
development of a water and flood plain management plan. 

C. SOURCES OF BACKGROUND DATA 

We acknowledge the many individuals and agencies who supplied various 
background data for the preparation of this report. Individuals and agencies from 
whom information was obtained include: North Central Florida Regional Planning 
Council and staff; U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation Service; University of Florida - 
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences - Soil Science Department, School of 
Forest Resources and Conservation and College of Engineering; City of Gainesville; 
Alachua County and its many departments; State of Florida Department of Natural 
Resources; U. S. Geological Survey; and Roy J. Miller (former Alachua County 
Engineer). 



SECTION 2 
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AREA 



A. GENERAL 

The project area consists of approximately 135 square miles of land and surface 
water commonly known as the Metropolitan Gainesville area and is located in the 
heart of Alachua County. The boundaries of the project area correspond to the 
Federal Housing and Urban Development (HUD) limits established as a result of the 
Alachua County Land Use Plan for the Gainesville Urban Area. Plate 1 shows the 
limits of the project area and an index to the NCFRPC topographic maps. 

Not all areas within the project limits where included in this study. The Newnans 
Lake and Paynes Prairie basins were deleted because their associated watersheds 
were located mostly outside the project limits. The Lake Alice basin, which includes 
most of the University of Florida, was deleted since it disposes of excess runoff 
through two drainage wells. The State of Florida Department of Natural Resources 
(DNR) land located in the southeast corner of the project area and consisting of 
numerous small sinkholes was also deleted. 

The project area topography consists of land and surface elevations ranging from 
about 50 feet to 190 feet above mean sea level (msl). In the western part, the land is 
predominantly rolling in character. Numerous small depressions receive the entire 
surface runoff. The area is devoid of surface streams and is dotted with sinks and 
limerock pits. The central part is dominated by the Hogtown Creek drainage system. 
In the east and southeast, most surface drainage flows to streams tributary to 
Newnans Lake or Paynes Prairie. In general, however, none of the project area is 
completely free of depressions which may accumulate surface water runoff. 

B. PHYSICAL DATA 

The project drainage area may be classified into two major basin types - depression 
basins and stream basins. Depression basins are those watersheds which have no 
outlet for surface water runoff except by percolation into the ground water tables 
(shallow or deep) and evapotranspiration. Depression basins dominate the western, 
south central, and southeastern portions of the project area. In general, the western 
area includes the area to the west of N. W. 43rd Street; the south central area 
includes the area south of Lake Kanapha, N. W. 20th Avenue, and Biven's Arm and 
bounded by Paynes Prairie to the east; and, the southeastern area includes the area 
east of Paynes Prairie and south of Calf Pond and bounded by Newnans Lake to the 
east. 

The major stream basins in the project area are illustrated on Plate 2. Stream basins 
are those watersheds which drain accumulated surface water runoff via streams and 
channels which ultimately discharge into lakes, sinkholes, prairies or other types of 
depressions. Stream basins dominate the north central and northeastern portions of 
the project area and constitute the remaining project area. 



1 1 

I 



PI 



Hi 






LEGEND 

— BASIN DIVIDE 

— SUB -BASIN DIVIDE 

— SUB ■ 3ASIAL NUMBER 

— DEPRESSION BASINS 

— STREAM LOCATION 
STREAM BASINS 

-- HOGTOWN CREEK 

— TUMBLIN CREEK 

— SWEETWATER BRANCH 

— LITTLE HATCHET CREEK 

— LAKE FOREST CREEK 

— CALF POND CREEK 

— LAKE ALICE 




NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



STREAM BASINS LOCATION MAP 



DATE PBOJECT NO 

SEPT. 1974 4194 



For the purpose of this study, each major stream basin has been named to facihtate 
reference to the specific area included in that basin. The major stream basins are 
identified as follows: Hogtown, Tumblin, Sweetwater, Lake Forest, Calf Pond, and 
Little Hatchet. A physical description of each basin is given below: 

1 . Hogtown Basin 

Hogtown Basin is located in the center of the project area and 
encompasses most of the northwest and a portion of the extreme 
northeast Gainesville urban area as illustrated on Plate 2. It is the largest 
basin in the project area and contains approximately 12,500 acres within 
its boundaries. A description of the land use in the basin is given elsewhere 
in tliis report. 

The major stream in the basin is Hogtown Creek whose headwaters are 
located in the area west of U.S. Hwy. 441 and north of N. W. 53rd 
Avenue at a ground elevation of approximately 185 ft. above mean sea 
level (MSL). Hogtown Creek proceeds in a southwesterly direction 
through the basin and ultimately discharges into Haile Sink which is 
located west of 1-75 near Lake Kanapaha. The ground elevation in the 
vicinity of the Hogtown Creek outlet is approximately 55 feet above MSL, 
and the total drop in ground elevation from its headwaters to its outlet is 
approximately 130 ft. 

A major tributary of Hogtown Creek is Possum Creek which joins 
Hogtown Creek south of N. W. 8th Avenue and east of N. W. 34th Street 
a. a ground elevation of approximately 75 ft. above MSL. The headwaters 
cf Possum Creek are located in the area north of N. W. 53rd Avenue and 
west of U.S. 441 at a ground elevation of approximately 190 ft. above 
vfSL. Possum Creek, with its numerous tributaries, drains much of the 
northwest Gainesville urban area. The total drop in ground elevation from 
■.he headwaters of Possum Creek to its junction with Hogtown Creek is 
approximately 1 1 5 feet. 

2. Tumblin Basin 

Tjinbhn Basin is located in the south central portion of the project area 
iiHi includes that part of the City of Gainesville situated between Archer 
Road and 13th Street to Main Street and south of N. W. 8th Avenue to 
Paynes Prairie as shown on Plate 2. It contains approximately 1 ,976 acres 
within its boundaries. The major stream in the basin is TumbUn Creek. 

The headwaters of Tumblin Creek are located in the area north of Alachua 
General Hospital at a ground elevation of approximately 125 ft. above 
MSL. From its headwaters, Tumblin Creek proceeds in a southwesterly 
diection into Bivens Arm located west of U.S. 441 at a ground elevation 
o' approximately 65 ft. above MSL and finally to Paynes Prairie. The total 
d'cp in ground elevation from the headwaters of Tumbhn Creek to its 
oi'det is approximately 60 feet. 



A major tributary of Sweetwater Branch is the Rosewood Lateral channel 
which joins Sweetwater Branch east of S. E. 8th Street and north of S. E. 
10th Avenue at a ground elevation of approximately 110 ft. above MSL. 
The headwaters of Rosewood Lateral are located west of the Waldo Road 
and north of N. E. 4th Avenue at a ground elevation of approximately 
160 ft. above MSL. From its headwaters, Rosewood Lateral proceeds in a 
southwesterly direction to its junction with Sweetwater Branch. The total 
drop in ground elevation from the headwaters of Rosewood Lateral to its 
junction with Sweetwater Branch is approximately 50 ft. 

4. Lake Forest Basin 

Lake Forest Basin is located in the south central project area to the east of 
Sweetwater Basin and generally includes the area roughly bounded by the 
Waldo Road, the Kincaid Road, Newnan's Lake and the Hawthorne Road. 
It contains approximately 4,547 acres within its boundaries. The major 
stream in the basin is Lake Forest Creek. 



i 

p 
I 



3. Sweetwater Basin 

Sweetwater Basin is located in the south central portion of the project 
area east of Tumblin Basin and includes that part of the City of 
Gainesville situated between Main Street to 15th Street and the Kincaid 
Road and south of N. E. 10th Avenue to Paynes Prairie as shown on Plate 
2. It contains approximately 1 ,690 acres within its boundaries. The major 
stream in the basin is Sweetwater Branch. 

The headwaters of Sweetwater Branch are located in the Gainesville . 

Shopping Center area on N. Main Street and N. W. 10th Avenue at a I 

ground elevation of approximately 185 ft. above MSL. Secondary 

drainage systems in the vicinity drain excess storm water to Sweetwater . 

Branch. From its headwaters, Sweetwater Branch proceeds in a generally 1 

southerly direction to its outlet into Paynes Prairie located southeast of 

the junction of S.R. 329 and S.R. 331 at a ground elevation of 

approximately 59 ft. above MSL. The total drop in ground elevation from | 

the headwaters of Sweetwater Branch to its outlet is approximately 1 26 

feet. 



1 

C 

[ 

I 



The headwaters of Lake Forest Creek are located north of the drive-in 

theater on the Hawthorne Road. However, major laterals which join Lake 

Forest Creek in the vicinity of its headwaters add additional drainage to 

the creek from that point. The approximate ground elevation at the | 

headwaters of Lake Forest Creek is 125 ft. above MSL. From its 

headwaters, Lake Forest Creek proceeds in an easterly direction to its , 

outlet into Newnan's Lake immediately north of the Sunland Center State 

Park at an approximate ground elevation of 70 ft. above MSL. The total 

drop in ground elevation from the headwaters of Lake Forest Creek to its 

outlet is approximately 55 feet. |l 



A major tributary to Lake Forest Creek is Sunnyland Creek whose 
headwaters are located at the Sunland Training Center. Sunnyland Creek 
joins Lake Forest Creek immediately west of the Sunland Center State 
Park. 

5. Calf Pond Basin 

Calf Pond basin is in the south central portion of the project area 
contiguous to Sweetwater Basin and Lake Forest Basin as shown on Plate 
2. It contains approximately 1 ,024 acres within its boundaries. The major 
stream in the basin is Calf Pond Creek. 

The headwaters of Calf Pond Creek are located in the Lincoln Estates 
Subdivsion at a ground elevation of approximately 125 ft. above MSL. 
From its headwaters Calf Pond Creek proceeds in a generally southeasterly 
direction to its outlet into Calf Pond located east of S. E. 27th Street at 
an approximate ground elevation of 80 ft. above MSL. The total drop in 
ground elevation from the headwaters of Calf Pond Creek to its outlet is 
approximately 45 feet. Several minor tributaries flow to Calf Pond Creek 
as shown on Plate 2. 

6. Little Hatchet Basin 

Little Hatchet Basin is located in the central portion of the project area 
and is contiguous to Hogtown Basin on the west and Lake Forest Basin on 
the south. The basin includes a portion of the N. E. Gainesville urban area 
and all of the Gainesville Municipal Airport as shown on Plate 2. It 
contains approximately 2,884 acres within its boundaries. The major 
stream in the basin is Little Hatchet Creek. 

The headwaters of Little Hatchet Creek are located west of the Waldo 
Road and north of the municipal airport at an approximate ground 
elevation of 160 ft. above MSL. Other minor tributaries add additional 
flow to Little Hatchet Creek from the N. E. Gainesville area as shown in 
Plate 2. From its headwaters, Little Hatchet Creek flows in an easterly 
direction, passing to the north of the municipal airport and ultimately 
discharging into the Gum Root Swamp north of S.R. S232 at an 
approximate ground elevation of 70 ft. above MSL, and finally into Lake 
Newnan's. The total drop in ground elevation from the headwaters of 
Little Hatchet Creek to its outlet is approximately 90 feet. 

SOIL DESCRIPTION 

The basis for determining hydrologic characteristics of an area is identification of 
the soil types present. Two sources of soil maps for the project area were available: 
(1) Soil Survey - Alachua County, Florida, Series 1940, No. 10, issued February 
1954 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in 
cooperation with the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station; and, (2) 
General Soil Map, Alachua County, Florida, 1967, published by the same agencies 
above. The general soil map shows the grouping of the soil identified by source (1) 
above, into associations. This map is very generalized and was not used. The soil map 



and information of source (1) above provides more detail on the identification of 
each type of soil within the project area and was used as the basis of the soil 
evaluation. 

Soil characteristics data pertaining to each type of soil in the project area are 
pubUshed in three forms: Soil Survey - 4lachua County from source (1) above; 5'o// 
Survey Interpretations by the USDA, Soil Conservation Service; and Florida Soil 
Identification Handbook prepared by the University of Florida - Institute of Food 
and Agricultural Sciences, Soil Science Department in cooperation with USDA, Soil 
Conservation Service. Many of the soil names as shown on the soil map are being 
renamed by the agencies above. The renaming or reclassification is not completed, so 
the original name for the soil type in the project area was used to avoid confusion. 

A comprehensive soil survey for Alachua County is currently under way. When the 
new soils data become available, such information should be compared with the soil 
map used for this study. If significant differences are observed, the computer 
analysis input data should be adjusted for future use of the computer program. 

Each soil type was placed in a designated group ranging from Group 1 through 7 
depending on the drainage and runoff characteristics with the best characteristics 
designated as Group 1. The poorest characteristics are placed in Group 7. Plate 3 
shows the soil map v^th the location of each group within the project area. The soil 
type placed in each group and a general description of each group is as follows: 

Group 1 Alachua, Arredondo, Blanton, Fort Meade, Gainesville, 
Jamison, Lakeland, Orlando, and St. Lucie: 

to 6 inches, light grayish brown or pale brown to 
yellowish-gray loose fine sand containing some organic 
matter; 

6 to 60 inches, yellow to light yellowish-brown or 
grayish-yellow or light gray loose fine sand with spotches of 
white fine sand; 

60 inches +, mottled light gray, yellow, and yellowish-brown 
friable fine sandy clay loam or fine sandy loam. 

Group 2 Chiefland, Hernando, and Jonesville 

to 5 inches, brownish-gray or dark gray to yellowish-gray 
loose fine sand; 

5 to 40-50 inches - light yellowish-brown to pale-brown loose 
fine sand; 

40 to 44 or 50 to 53 inches, yellowish-brown friable but 
slightly sticky fine sandy clay or heavy fine sandy loam; 

44 to 53+ inches, Ocala limestone. 



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BOUNDARIES OF AREAS 
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BOUNDARIES OF AREAS 
COVERED Br INDIVIDUAL 
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SCALE I =100 



CITY L.'MITS 



SECTION LINE 
SECTION NUMBER 

HUO LINE 



SOIL GROUP 



SOIL DESCRIPTION -SERIE: 



ALACHUA, ARREDONDO 
BLANTON, FORT MEADE, 
GAINESVILLE, JAMISON. 
LAKELAND, ORLANDO 
ST LUCIE 



BLADEN, FELLOWSHIP 



PLUUUER, RUTLECE 

ALLUVIAL SOILS, MADE 
LAND, PITS, MINES. 
PEAT 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



SOIL CLASSIFICATION 
MAP 



PROJECT NO 



n 

ml 

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Group 3 Kanapaha, Leon and Scranton 

to 4 inches, medium-gray nearly loose fine sand containing 
some grass roots and long large roots of saw palmetto; 

4 to 18 inches, white or yellowish-white loose fine sand; 

18 to 21 inches, black or very dark-brown hardpan consisting 
of fine sand cemented with organic matter; hardens on 
exposure to air and becomes extremely hard but brittle when 
dry; firm to friable when moist; contains coarse vegetable 
matter; 

21 to 26 inches, dark-brown partly cemented fine sand; 
upper 1 or 2 inches is moderately hard but brittle, and the 
rest is friable ; 

26 to 32 inches, yellowish-brown loose fine sand usually 
saturated with water; 

32 to 60 inches, Ught gray loose fine sand with streaks of 
brown or dark gray, usually wet. 

Group 4 Bladen and Fellowship 

to 7 inches, gray to brownish-gray nearly loose loamy sand 
containing a noticeable quantity of organic matter. 

7 to 1 2 inches, yellowish-brown or Ught-gray nearly loose 
loamy sand; 

12 to 52 inches, gray or light-gray plastic clay or plastic 
heavy fine sandy clay mottled or streaked with yellowish 
brown. 

52 inches +, medium gray plastic heavy clay with slight 
mottlings of yellowish-brown; 

or 

to 6 inches, gray or dark-gray friable loamy fine sand 
containing a small quantity of organic matter; 

6 to 1 8 inches, yellowish-gray or light-gray friable loamy fine 
sand; 

18 to 42 inches, gray or light-gray, mottled with brown, 
heavy fine sandy clay or clay; very plastic when wet, firm 
when moist, very hard when dry; shrinks, cracks, and breaks 
into large angular blocks when drying; 

42 inches +, mottled light-gray and brown heavy clay with 
some chert gravel, cobbles, and limestone fragments. 



10 



Group 5 Plummer and Rut ledge 

to 14 inches, gray to black fine sand; 

14 to 60 inches, light-gray fine sand mottled with yellow to 
brown; 

60 inches +, light gray friable sandy clay loam; very poorly 
drained soil with standing waters during rainy season. 

Group 6 Peat, Peaty Muck, Alluvial Soils, Made Land, Pits and Mine 



Group 7 Bayboro, Water, Marshes 

Bayboro contains highly organic, black or very gray loamy 
fine sand in marshes with standing water. Most predominate 
in the prairie areas on Paynes Prairie. 

Based on the evaluation of the information found in the three sources above, runoff 
coefficients were assigned for each group of soil to determine the weighted 
coefficient for any area. 



D. LAND USE 



In addition to the effect of ground surface topography and soil type, the quantity 
and rate of surface water rimoff resulting from a given rainfall is also a direct 
function of the land development character. For example, higher density 
developments tend to increase the amount of surface water runoff over low density 
developments. For this reason, the proper designation of fiood plain areas requires a 
thorough analysis of the existing and future trends in land use patterns in each 
watershed area. Such patterns are normally governed, in large part, by the planning 
and zoning activities of the local governmental agencies. 

For the purpose of this study, the existing land use for each watershed or basin has 
been determined from the topographic and aerial maps supplied by the NCFRPC, 
checked and augmented by actual field survey. Areas which were under construction 
at the date of photography were considered as existing. Future land use 
considerations were based upon adopted land use plans for the Gainesville Urban 
Area and Alachua County supplied by the NCFRPC. 

Plate 4 illustrates the existing and proposed land use in the study area. In the 
preparation of this map, NCFRPC authorized that those areas indicated as 
undeveloped on the adopted land use plans would remain undeveloped, except that 
certain areas which have been designated for further study were assumed as 
commerical development. 



r 



^ 
n 



Peaty and Peaty Muck contains highly organic matter from 1 
to 12 feet averaging 8 feet, generally with standing water. _ 

Alluvial soils, undifferentiated, are found on the flood plains I 

or first bottoms along creeks and branches. 







12 



i 



(i 
III 



Land use in the study area has been placed into nine major categories as follows: 
Single Family, Multiple Family, Planned Unit Development (PUD), Mobile Homes, 
Commercial, Industrial, Institutional, Recreation and Undeveloped. Each major land 
use category shown on Plate 4 is defined below: 

Single Family: Includes all single family dwellings and low density (t 8 
units/acre) muliple family dwellings. 

Multiple Family: Includes all medium (± 14 units/acre) and high (± 20 
units/acre) density multiple family dwellings; multiple family/offices and 
multiple family/commercial areas designated on the adopted land use plan 
for the Gainesville Urban Area. 

Planned Unit Development (PUD): A district which includes residential 
units, two family and multiple family dwellings; churches, schools, 
community or club buildings and similar pubHc and semi-public facilities; 
nonresidential uses, including commercial or retail uses, industrial uses and 
offices, clinics and professional uses. 

Mobile Homes: Includes all mobile homes; mobile homes/single family 
and mobile homes/multiple family as designed or the adopted land use 
plan for the Gainesville Urban Area. 

Commercial: Includes all commercial estabhshments and offices. 

Industrial: Includes all industrial and wholesale/warehousing 
establishments. 

Institutional: Includes all public and semi-public establishments. 

Recreational: Includes all parks, recreational areas, open space and 
buffers. 

Undeveloped: Includes all areas not designated in any of the above 
categories and consists primarily of agricultural and natural land. 

The results of this study are based upon the proposed land use plan shown on Plate 
4. Any future changes to this plan may significantly alter the drainage characteristics 
within the watershed in question. Consequently, it is recommended that the results 
of this study be reevaluated routinely whenever changes in the land use plan are 
being considered. 



13 



SECTION 3 
HYDROLOGY OF PROJECT AREA 



GENERAL 

Analysis of records on area rainfall, surface water flows and ground water elevations 
is essential to define the area's hydrology. This section presents the information 
studied and describes some of the hydrologic characteristics of the study area. 

RAINFALL 

Rainfall in the Gainesville area is abundant, averaging about 54 inches per year. 
Annual rainfall has ranged from as little as 35 inches to as much as 80 inches. In an 
average year about 60 percent of the annual rainfall occurs from June through 
September in the form of afternoon or evening local showers or thunderstorms. 
Rainfall during other seasons of the year is usually the result of large scale weather 
developments, such as hurricanes and frontal movements. Periods of deficient 
rainfall, particularly in November through May, occur during most years. The 
experimental program data shows a period of deficient rainfall for the months of 
July 1973 through April 1974. This "dry" period is typical of a drought period 
which can be expected to occur in the project area at infrequent intervals. Prolonged 
wet periods may also be expected to occur. 

GROUND WATER 

The ground water characteristics of the study area include the shallow (ground water 
table) and the deep (Floridan) aquifers. The ground water table is very much 
dependent upon the quantity and frequency of rainfall. In the areas where an 
impervious layer of soil lies over the hmestone formation of the Floridan aquifer, 
the ground water table level responds quickly to the amount of rainfall. This 
characteristic is revealed in the fluctuation of Test Basin No. 4 and 8 of the 
experimental program. Depth of soil to the impervious layer varies throughout the 
project area and ranges from 18—24 inches to over 60 inches. 

The ground water table at the bottom of the basins, located in the areas where the 
impervious layer is non-existent, is generally the same level as the piezometric 
surface of the deep aquifers. These areas are generally located where sink holes, 
solution caverns and depression basins with deep sand overlying the hmestone 
formation are found. 

The deep water aquifer is the predominant source of fresh water supply for the 
Gainesville area. The deep water aquifer, if tapped, would normally rise to 55-60 
feet above mean sea level in the study area. Plate 5 shows the level of the normal 
piezometric surface of the deep aquifer in the project area. Periods of excessive or 
deficient rainfall are reflected in the fluctuation of the piezometric surface. The data 
for Haile Sink, as shown in the experimental program, reflect the subnormal rainfall 
over the area during the period between July 1973 to April 1974. The deep water 
aquifer in the study area is recharged primarily through the numerous sink holes. 



14 





8H 



■ DDII 
I 



BOUNDARieS OF AREAS 
COVERED Br INDIVIDUAL 
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS AT 
SCALE I - 200' 



BOUNDARIES OP AREAS 
COVERED BY INDIVIDUAL 
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS AT 
SCALE I' = 100' 



— CITY LIUITS 
_ RANGE OR 

TOWNSHIP Line 

lECTION LINE 
•SECTION NUMBER 

— HUD LINE 



-60 



PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE 
OF THE FLOP I DAN 
AOUIFER IN FEET ABOVE 
MEAN SEA LEVEL 



SOURCE US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN 

COOPERATION WITH THE FLORID. 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY TALLA 
HASSEE, FLA 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



PIEZOMETRIC SURFACE CONTOUR OF 
FLORIDAN AOUIFER IN STUDY AREA 



PROJECT NO 



15 



solution caverns and depression basins void of impervious layers overlying the 
limestone formation. Some sinks of large capacity include Alachua Sink in Paynes 
Prairie, Haile Sink of the Hogtown Creek stream basin and Devil's Millhopper. 



16 



SECTION 4 

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM FOR DETERMINATION OF RUNOFF 

COEFFICIENT AND INFILTRATION RATES 



A. GENERAL 

The values assigned for runoff coefficients and infiltration rates are most important 
to a proper determination of the area hydrology. An experimental program was 
included as part of this study to provide the basic values for runoff coefficients and 
permeabihty rates for the different types of soils in the study area. 

As a supplement to the experimental program, a data gathering program was 
conducted to collect rainfall data from existing rain gages within the project area. 
These data served to verify the actual rainfall in the test basins and the pattern of 
rainfall over the project area. 

B. SELECTION OF TEST BASINS 

The experimental program provided for installation and monitoring of two runoff 
test basins and tliree infiltration test basins. Pre-selection of test basin sites was 
based on examination of the project area using NCFRPC topographic maps. Field 
investigations were performed on each pre-selected site to determine the suitabiUty 
for test basin use. The land owners of the selected test basin sites were contacted 
and a formal request to use the owner's land as test basins was made by NCFRPC. 
The final test basin sites are as shown on Plate 6. 

C. RUNOFF TEST BASINS 

Two runoff test basins were selected for the experimental program. These are 
designated as Test Basin No. 1 and No. 2. A description of these test basins is as 
follows: 

Test Basin No. 1 is located in the northwest part of the project area. The 
site is approximately IV2 miles west of N.W. 43rd Street (Millhopper 
Road) and 1/2 mile north of N. W. 39th Avenue. 

Test Basin No. 2 is located in the northeast section of the project area 
approximately 1/2 mile east of Waldo Road and 1/2 mile south of N.E. 
39th Avenue on the State of Florida, Division of Corrections Santa Fe 
Community Correctional Center property. 

The area of Test Basin No. 1 is approximately 12 acres and Test Basin No. 
2 is approximately 25 acres. 



17 




18 



An existing stream originates within each of the test basins and flows through the 
basins. The best location for installation of a water measuring weir in each basin was 
selected and surveyed for weir design. Analysis of the basins physical and 
hydrological characteristics revealed that a 90° V-notch weir and a rectangular weir, 
with weir length of 3.5 feet, would be best for Test Basins No. 1 and 2, respectively. 

A self-recording water level instrument and other equipment were installed at each 
basin to monitor the level of the water flowing over the measuring weir. The outflow 
hydrograph of any storm which produced runoff was measured to determine the 
runoff coefficient from each runoff test basin. 

D. INFILTRATION TEST BASINS 

Six sites were selected as infiltration test basins and were designated as No. 3 
through No. 8. Test Basin No. 5 was deleted because permission from the land 
owner could not be obtained. 

Test Basins No. 3 and 4 are located directly across from the new Santa Fe 
Community College campus on N.W. 83rd Street. Test Basin No. 6 is located 
approximately 1/2 mile east of N.W. 83rd Street on the south side of N.W. 23rd 
Avenue. Test Basin No. 7 is located in the southwest part of the project area 
approximately 1/2 mile off the Archer Road as shown on Plate 2, Test Basin No. 8 is 
located behind the State of Florida Division of Corrections Road Prison on SR 26 
just north of junction with East University Avenue. 

Test Basins No. 3 and 6 are depressions with no free standing water during dry 
periods. Test Basins No. 4 and 8 each have a pond located within the basin. Field 
survey shows that the water level in Basins No. 4 and 8 is much higher than the 
piezometric water level of the Floridan aquifer. Therefore, the ponds definitely are 
perched water table ponds. 

A staff gage was installed in each of the infiltration test basins to monitor the rise 
and fall and depth of water in the basin. 

Significant errors were found in the topographic maps prepared by the aerial 
surveyor for NCFRPC. As a result, field topographic surveys were conducted in the 
test basins to provide the correct topography. 

E, HYDROLOGICAL AND METEOROLOGICAL DATA COLLECTION PROGRAM 

State, federal and locaj governmental agencies which have measuring stations within 
the project area were contacted and requested to furnish historical data. In addition, 
rain gages were installed at Test Basin No. 2, 3, 7 and 8 to monitor the exact rainfall 
in each of the above test basin areas. The following hst shows the source, location 
and type of data available. 



19 



Source 

Univ. of Florida 
Dr. Jon F. Batholic, 
Asso. Prof. I FAS 
Fruit Crop 

Univ. of Florida 
Dr. Gordon M. Prine, 
IFAS Agronomy 

Federal Gov't.; FAA 



Alachua County Road 
Dept.; County Engineer 
Office 



Location 

Horticulture Unit, 
Millhopper Road 



Univ. of Florida 
Campus; Farm 



Gainesville Municipal 
Airport 

Ala. Co. Rd. Dept. 
Co. Eng, Office 



Type of Data Available 

7-day recording raingage 



7-day recording raingage 



Daily rainfall 
6-hour intervals 



Daily rainfall 



5. John Kelly Power Plant 



John Kelly Power Plant Daily rainfall 

8-hour intervals 



Federal Gov't.; USGS 



Santa Fe Community 
College — Biology 
Laboratories 



Hogtown Creek 

@SR26A 

@ SW 20th Ave. 

Haile Sink 

Lake Kanapaha 

Sweetwater Branch 

@ S.E. 2nd Place 

Test Basin Nos. 2, 
3, 7 and 8 



Stream gage 
Stream gage 
Staff gage 
Staff gage 

Stream gage 

Borrowed - four manual 
4" raingages 



F. 



TEST BASIN DATA COLLECTED 



The runoff and infiltration test basin monitoring program began July 27, 1973, and 
continued until April 30, 1974. The test basins were monitored on a weekly basis 
and during and after rainstorms. Meteorological data were collected from other 
stations on a weekly basis. The entire nine month period was a period of abnormally 
low rainfall. Little useful information was collected. 

Summary of the data collected for the total duration is presented in this section. 

Table 1 shows a summary of the rainfall in the Gainesville area for the monitoring 
period. All data were collected from rainfall produced by isolated thunderstorms 
and "dry frontal systems." The project area was not subjected to a low depression 
type rainstorm during of the experimental program. 



20 



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21 



The months of October, November, January, March, and April were extremely dry 
as shown in the data collected. The normal amount of rainfall for the period July 
tlirough April is 42.35 inches. The Gainesville area received a maximum of 35.50 
inches at the Gainesville Airport and a minimum of 18.37 inches at Test Basin No. 1. 
The largest maximum daily rainfall ranged from 2.47 inches at the John Kelly Power 
Plant to 1.54 inches at Test Basin No. I. 

The shallow and deep ground water levels are sensitive to rainfall. The antecedent 
months of below normal rainfall caused a pronounced drop in ground water level 
throughout the Gainesville area and statewide. Table 2 shows the lowest monthly 
ground water level at Test Basins No. 4 and 8, Lake Kanapaha, and Haile Sink for 
the period July, 1973 to April, 1974. 

The deficiency in rainfall prior to April, 1974 is reflected in the piezometric water 
level records of Haile Sink. The normal water level of the sink is approximately 
50.52 feet above mean sea level (msl) which was the level of July, 1973. In April, 
1974 the water level had fallen to 43.8 feet msl. This decrease in the piezometric 
level of the aquifer is indicative of the drought period which the Gainesville area and 
the State have experienced. 

The experimental program for collection of basic data resulted in failure due to the 
abnormally low rainfall in the project area. The NCFRPC requested the Alachua 
County Engineering Department (ACED) to accept the responsibihty for a continual 
monitoring program until such time that sufficient data is collected. 



The engineers were authorized to estimate the values for runoff coefficients and 
infiltration rates and proceed with completion of the study. 



22 






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23 



SECTION 5 
DESIGN CRITERIA AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS 



A. GENERAL 

The basic design criteria were established before determining the flood elevations in 
the stream and depression basins. Computer programs were prepared utilizing the 
basic criteria and data to expedite the laborious task involved in determining the 
flood elevations. The program will also permit the NCFRPC to update, alter or revise 
as necessary any part of the water management program. The design criteria and the 
basic assumptions used are presented in this section. 

A supplement to this report specifically outlines the mechanics of the computer 
program for continued usage by the NCFRPC. The variable names used in the 
program are identified. The method of supplying input data and setting up the 
program has been outlined, and the entire program has been submitted to the 
NCFRPC as a tool ready to be put to use. 

B. FREQUENCY OF STORM EVENTS 

This study establishes the 10 year flood channel and 100 year flood plain elevations 
for stream basins and the 100 year flood plain elevation for depression basins. The 
basis for predicting the rainfall for the 10 year and 100 year events is Technical 
Paper No. 40, Rainfall Frequency Atlas of the United States as pubhshed by the 
U.S. Department of Commerce. The intensity versus duration curves of Plate 7 was 
developed from the rainfall atlas above. 

C. RUNOFF COEFFICIENT 

The experimental program was initiated to provide sufficient basic data to determine 
the runoff coefficient for each soil group in the project area. Due to lack of 
excessive rainfall during the monitoring period of the experimental program, 
sufficient data were not obtained. The engineers were then authorized to proceed 
with the project utilizing the best judgment and background knowledge possible to 
estimate the runoff coefficients. 

The weighted runoff coefficients were computed from the following criteria: 
Type of Land Use {%) Percent Impervious Surface 



(1) Single Family 


35 


(2) Multiple Family 


55 


(3) Planned Unit 


45 


(4) Mobile Home 


45 


(5) Commercial 


80 


(6) Industrial 


55 


(7) Institutional 


10 


(8) Recreational 


5 


(9) Undeveloped 






24 



4.0 



\ 



to 



10,0 































^^ 


•^y^ -. 




















^^? i^^H"^^*^- 






















^^•^'^^J'**" 


««,»_^^ 




















^">»*^^*^ 


,,|^~*H 




;;:; 
















j-7^^^ 


^^^ 








- 




















■ 












































































0.25 



8 10 12 14 

DURATION (HRS.) 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



RAINFALL INTENSITY VS. DURATION FOR 
10 YR - 25 YR. - 100 YR. FREQ. FOR 
0.25 HR. TO 24 HR. DURATION 



SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 
CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE^ 
SEPT, 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 7 



25 



Impervious surfaces are defined as surfaces such as roofs, streets, and driveway 
pavement. A runoff coefficient of 0.90 has been established for these surfaces. 

Generally, a flood-producing rainfall occurs following several days of intermittent 
rainfall. The antecedent moisture condition of the soil becomes high. Therefore, for 
the various soil groups as described in previous sections, the runoff coefficients 
assigned to each group are as follows: 

Soil Group Runoff Coefficient 

1 0.10 

2 0.20 

3 0.35 

4 0.40 

5 0.50 

6 0.65 

7 1.0 

Weighted coefficients were calculated for each type of development corresponding 
to the soil groups. The weighted coefficient for any variation of development and 
soil group is as follows: 

RUNOFF COEFFICIENTS 
Type of Development 



SoU 


Sin^e 


Multiple 


Planned 


Mobile 


Commer- 


Indus- 


Institu- 


Recrea- 


Undevel- 


Group 


FamUy 


Family 


Unit 


Home 


cial 


trial 


tional 


tional 


oped 




(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


1 


0.38 


0.54 


0.45 


0.45 


0.74 


0.54 


0.18 


0.15 


0.10 


2 


0.44 


0.61 


0.54 


0.54 


0.77 


0.61 


0.32 


0.28 


0.25 


3 


0.54 


0.65 


0.59 


0.60 


0.79 


0.65 


0.40 


0.38 


0.35 


4 


0.61 


0.70 


0.65 


0.65 


0.81 


0.70 


0.50 


043 


0.45 


5 


0.64 


0.72 


0.67 


0.68 


0.82 


0.72 


0.54 


0.53 


0.50 


6 


0.74 


0.79 


0.76 


0.76 


0.85 


0.79 


0.68 


0.66 


0.65 


7 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


LOO 



The weighted runoff coefficient was determined as follows: 

Weighted C = Sum of AG's , 

Sum A's 

Where A = area in acres and C = the corresponding coefficient. 

The proposed land use map does not provide proposed land use for the entire 
project area. Where there is no proposed land use, the NCFRPC provided 
information on the type of development that has already taken place. These 
developments were incorporated in the study. The NCFRPC authorized the 
engineers to classify the remaining undeveloped areas as undeveloped for the stream 
and depression basins analyses. 



26 



D. PERMEABILITY RATES 

Analysis of depression basins is accomplished by the Retention Basin Runoff 
Analysis computer program. Basic data requirements include the rainfall for various 
frequency storm to be analyzed, runoff coefficient, and permeability rates of the 
depression bottom. The permeability rates for various types of soils were obtained 
from published information in the Soil Survey Interpretations, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service for the types of soil in the project area. In 
conjunction with information obtained above, an assessment of the depression 
basins was made in the field, utiUzing aerial maps as necessary to classify the 
depression basins. Each depression basin was placed in one of four major categories: 
(1) well drained; (2) poorly drained; (3) ponded depression; or (4) solution cavern. 
The permeability rates for the various soil types were reduced to average rates based 
on the soil group designations. The average permeability rates assigned to individual 
basins were based on the soil group located at the basin bottom and on the basin 
classification. The values assigned are as follows: 



Basin Oassification 

Solution Cavern 
Poorly Drained 
Ponded Depression 
Well Drained 
Well Drained 

E. POSSIBLE CHANGES IN RUNOFF COEFFICIENT AND PERMEABILITY RATES 



The values assigned for runoff coefficients and permeabihty may require 
modification if evaluation of the comprehensive soil survey and/or data from the 
experimental program show major differences than the assigned values. Modified 
flood plain elevations for depression basins may be generated by the Retention Basin 
Runoff Analysis computer program by inserting the modified runoff coefficient 
and/or permeability rates. 

F. COMPUTER PROGRAM - STREAM BASIN ANALYSIS 

Three separate computer programs were required to examine the stream basin 
hydraulic characteristics. These programs are: (1) water surface profile; (2) stream 
runoff analysis; and, (3) flood routing. The diagram as shown on Plate 8 outlines the 
general process for hydrological evaluations of stream basins. 

Water Surface Profile 

A review of water surface programs available was investigated and "A Computer 
Program for Determining Flood Elevations and Flood Areas for Curtain Flow Rates" 
(WSP-2) prepared by Robert M. Pasley and Owen P. Lee of the USDA Soil 
Conservation Service, was selected to identify this stream characteristic. 



Soil Groups 


Permeability Rates 
(ft/day) 


All 


12.6 to 30.0 


All 


1.0 


All 


0.0 


1 


12.6 


2,3,4,5,6,7 


8.0 



27 



BASIC DATA COLLECTION PROGRAM 



DATA 



WATER SURFACE PROFILE 
PROGRAM 








STREAM RUNOFF ANALYSIS 
PROGRAM 



FLOOD ROUTE 
PROGRAM 



\ 
I 

So 










NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



STREAM BASIN 
WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 
FLOW DIAGRAM 



SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE: 

SEPT, 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 8 



28 



The computer program WSP2, when used within its Umitations, can aid in the 
determination of flood characteristics for a given set of physical conditions. More 
specifically the program computes water surface profiles in open channels. This 
program necessitates the description of a large amount of physical data such as 
valley shape, roughness, restrictions, etc. The program requirements of core storage 
exceeded the Alachua County computer capacity, so the University of Florida 
Computer Center was used to run the WSP-2. 

The method that WSP2 uses to extend profiles between valley sections is a version of 
the modified step method. All profiles are computed in an upstream direction. 
Therefore, only subcritical flow can be analyzed. This step method requires a special 
technique for starting profiles. The program can start from either historical records 
or estimates. The program can start from given elevations, from given slopes, or from 
critical depths. 

Once the starting downstream information is developed (all that is needed is 
elevation of the energy grade Une), the following steps are used to extend the profile 
to the next upstream section. At the upstream section: 

1. A set of elevations is determined for which a table of areas and 

KDs is developed for each segment of the cross section. (KD is an 

abbreviation for conveyance and is equal to ^•'^°^ AR 2/3 ^ which 

n 
is extracted from Manning's equation for velocity of flow in an 

open channel or uniform flow.) 

2. The areas and KDs are computed by segment for the elevations 
chosen in Step 1. 

3. For each of the elevations chosen in Step 1 , critical discharge and 
velocity head is computed and saved. 

4. The flow rate for the profile flow being considered is calculated, 
and the elevation where critical flow occurs is found by 
interpolation from the table developed in Step 3. 

5. Energy is balanced when the trial elevation plus velocity head at 
the upstream section is within 0.1 of a foot of the energy grade 
line elevation at the downstream section plus losses. 

6. If the upstream energy grade Une (using critical elevation) is 
greater than the downstream energy grade line plus friction loss, 
super critical flow is assumed and critical elevation is taken as the 
answer for the profile. If the reverse is true, a higher elevation is 
chosen and the energy balance is checked, and this continues until 
an elevation is found for which energy will balance within the 0.1 
foot limit. 

The analysis of a roadway restriction can be broken into three steps: (1) Find the 
water surface elevation at the downstream face of the opening through the road 
embankment; (2) Find the head less due to the restriction; (3) Find the water 



29 



surface elevation at the approach section. Steps 1 and 3 are the same for culvert and 
bridge type openings through the road embankment, and these steps are described in 
this section. Step 2 is different for culverts and bridges. 

The value for tailwater is found by balancing energy between the exit valley section 
and a new section manufactured by the program at the downstream face of the 
bridge. 

After the headwater elevation is determined energy is balanced from the upstream 
face of the bridge to the approach section. In order to do this a velocity head must 
be calculated and added to the headwater elevation to get an energy grade line 
elevation at the upstream face of the bridge. Once this velocity head is found the 
water surface profile can be determined at the approach section. 

The procedure that WSP2 uses to analyze flow through bridges was developed by the 
Bureau of Public Roads, an agency within the Department of Transportation, and is 
well documented in their bulletin entitled "Hydraulics of Bridge Waterways. " 

WSP2 can analyze the losses through culvert openings in a road restriction. The 
computer solves the problems as follows: (1) it assumes a headwater elevation; (2) 
finds the flow capacity through each opening at that headwater elevation; (3) finds 
the flow capacity over the road at that headwater elevation; and, (4) sums the 
capacity through each opening and over the road. If a check indicated a higher 
profile is necessary, it is incremented upward and the cycle is started over at Step 2. 

It should be noted that the water surface profile determination has inherent 
limitations. These hmitations are due to a general program being applied to a specific 
situation. This situation puts the burden of obtaining accurate data for input to the 
program. 

The results of the program are printed by the computer in the form of various tables 
and graphs for each cross section and road section analyzed. 

Stream Runoff Analysis 

Flow rates of peak discharges at points of interest for existing and future land use 
conditions of 10, 25 and 100 year frequency storms are generated by a stream 
runoff analysis (SRA) program. A computer program for this purpose should 
establish runoff coefficients and time of concentration of watershed runoff for the 
purpose of updating, altering or revising a water management program, including a 
generation of hydrographs for flood routing analysis of receiving waters and control 
structures. A computer program, "Drainage Runoff Analysis," written by John Pai 
of Consoer, Townsend & Assoc, of 360E Grand Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, was 
selected to fulfill the stated purposes. However, this computer program was 
inadequate for the demands of the water management program so major 
modifications were made. Basically, the program uses the Rational Method for 
computing peak flow rates. Equation for the Rational Method is: 



30 



Q = CiA 

Where, 

Q = Peak rate of runoff, cfs at point under design 

C = Weighted runoff coefficient, expressing the ratio 
of runoff to rainfall 

i = Average intensity of rainfall, in inches per hour 

(for the selected frequency storm and duration 
equal to the time of concentration) 

NOTE: 1 cfs of runoff per acre equals 1.008 in. per 

hour of rainfall. Therefore, no correction required. 

A = Drainage area, in acres. 

This program was given to the Alachua County Data Processing Center for operation 
and will be kept at the computer center for use as required by NCFRPC. 

The operation of the computer program requires certain input data. Runoff 
coefficients, which were established in previous sections of the report, relate the 
percentage of rainfall which will runoff to a stream and are dependent upon land use 
and soil type classification. This information, with equations developed from the 
rainfall intensity vs. duration curves and areas, provides the data needed to calculate 
peak flows. 

Using subareas and runoff coefficients pertaining to soil groups and types of 
development for each watershed considered, a weighted runoff coefficient for the 
area is calculated. The Kirpich formula is applied to estabUsh time of concentration 
which yields the rainfall intensity for selected return periods through a development 
equation. KD/Area values, obtained from the WSP2 results, are input to facihtate 
calculation of channel velocities and allow lag time between control sections to be 
determined. Hence, the discharge at a selected location is computed as the sum of 
individual hydrographs for the maximum time of concentration to that point. The 
resulting hydrograph, peak discharge and time of concentration are printed out by 
the computer. 

The peak discharges obtained are used to enter the appropriate elevation vs. 
discharge plots from the WSP2 program to determine flood elevations. These data 
are also useful for designing adequate structures for the flood channel and 
determining increases in volume as well as rate of runoff from a proposed 
development. Finally, the generated hydrographs are used for input to the flood 
routing program for receiving lakes and prairies. 

Flood Routing 

Some of the stream basins studied discharge through or into impoundment areas. 
Therefore, flood routing is necessary to determine the flood elevations and 
maximum discharges of the outflow structure based on the inflow hydrographs and 
storage in the impoundment areas. Altering or revising the water management 
program is easily accomplished if the outlet structure and/or impoundment areas are 
altered. A flood routing program (FR) written by T. J. Campbell (URS/Forrest and 
Cotton, Inc.) is used to serve this purpose. 

31 



The flood routing program requires expected discharges and storage capacities for 
various elevations. These data coupled with the inflow hydrograph from the stream 
runoff analysis program are necessary for operation of the program. The program 
uses the continuity equation as adapted for reservoir routing method and is based on 
conservation of mass. For a given time interval, the volume of inflow minus the 
volume of outflow equals the change in volume of storage. The equation is written 
as follows: 

A t(T-O) = S 

where, A. t = a time interval 

I = average rate of inflow during the time interval 

= average rate of outflow during the time interval 

S = change in volume of storage during the time interval 

The flood routing program, used in conjunction with the WSP2 and Stream Runoff 
Analysis programs, establish flood elevations, outflow hydrographs and aid in the 
analysis of flood detention characteristics. The three programs comprise the stream 
basin analysis for the water management program. 

Retention Basin Analysis 

Many smaller basins in the planning area receive runoff without the conveyance of 
stream channels for inflow or outflow. These basins require special analysis. 

There are well over 1,200 depressions in the planning area receiving runoff from 
their respective watersheds. Each watershed has specific soil types and land uses 
(both existing and proposed). The combination of soil type and type of 
development determines the runoff coefficient for each appropriate subarea of a 
watershed. This factor is incorporated into the study of retention basins. The 
volume of fiow received and stored by a retention basin determines the fiood 
elevation within the basin. A coupUng of rainfall and runoff for the watershed 
indicates the probable fiood elevation for existing and future land use conditions. A 
review of available programs indicated that a suitable analytical technique for the 
basins of this area was not available. In order to provide an analysis method which 
could be updated, altered or revised, a retention basin runoff analysis computer 
program was written by the engineers. 

The design criteria for fiood plaining depression basins is based on the 100 year - 24 
hour rainfall. Additional storm freqencies, 10 and 25 year, were analyzed for 
durations to ten days as authorized by NCFRPC. The rainfall for durations greater 
than 24 hours was obtained from the U. S. Department of Commerce Weather 
Bureau Technical Paper No. 49 - "Two to Ten Day Precipitation for Return Periods 
of 2 - 100 Years Contiguous U.S. " The first day represents the rainfall of a 24 hour 
period for the given frequency and the remaining days are distributed rainfall 
totaling the 10 day precipitation records. The runoff coefficients arc the same as 
used for the stream runoff analysis. 



32 



The program computes an average runoff coefficient from the outlined state of 
condition of the watershed. The volume of runoff is determined and weighed against 
factors of storage, discharge and infiltration. The maximum anticipated flood 
elevation and area is thus determined for 10, 25 and 100 year storm return 
frequencies under any watershed characteristics outhned. 

COMPUTER PRINTOUT SHEETS 

A set of computer program cards, input data cards, and a copy of all computer 
printout sheets were presented to NCFRPC. 



33 



SECTION 6 
DEPRESSION BASINS EVALUATION AND PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING 

A. GENERAL 

The project area has many small areas formed by natural depressions. These 
depressions have no positive outlet for excessive runoff other than infiltration into 
the ground, sink holes with infiltration, or solution caverns with direct connection 
to the deep water aquifer. Flood plaining of the dejMession basin is essential as 
development takes place within the basin to prevent flood damage to new 
construction. 

B. EVALUATION PROCEDURES 

The topograpliic maps furnished by NCFRPC were the base maps used to delineate 
the drainage divides for all stream and depression drain i.^e basins. Each depression 
basin was given a number beginning with the numoer 1 and continuing in 
consecutive order for each section of land. Example: for Section 17, Township 10 
South, Range 19 East, each depression is numbered beginning with number 1 then 2, 
3, etc. and for any other section, the numbering began aga n with number 1. 

Flood plain criteria were presented in previous sections of the report. These criteria 
required flood plain elevations for the 100 year frequency storm based on existing 
land use conditions and proposed future land use conditions. The Retention Basin 
Analysis computer program generates the flood plain elevations based on the input 
data. In addition to the flood plain elevation required, the computer program is 
capable of generating the flood elevations produced by the 10 and 25 year 
frequency storms. The NCFRPC authorized the engineers to include this capability 
(10 and 25 year flood elevations) in the computer work and the information is 
shown on the computer printout sheets. 

Accuracy of the flood plain elevations is primarily based on the input data. One of 
the most important items is the configuration of the basin bottom. Discrepancies on 
the topographic maps have been found in many basins especially if the basins are 
location in wooded areas. Caution should be used when examining flood plain 
designation in these areas. Field surveys may be required to produce the actual 
physical configuration of the basin. 

Typical information placed on the NCFRPC mylar maps for depression basin flood 
plain elevations is shown on Plate 9. Explanation of symbols and elevation 
designations are shown on the legend of each map. The following are explanations of 
information as shown on the plate above. 




35 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



TYPICAL DEPRESSION BASIN 
FLOOD PLAIN DESIGNATION 



SVERDRUP a F^RCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE^ 
SEPT, 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 9 



© 



Basin Number 



29 - Section Number 

I ' (Township and Range as shown on map) 

F168.5 - Flood Plain Elevation Based on Future 

Land Use Conditions 

F 166.0 - Flood Plain Elevation Based on Existing 

Land Use Conditions 

C. DEPRESSION BASINS OMITTED 

Depression basins located in the perimeter areas of the mapping hmits, including 
large basins such as Paynes Prairie and the area within the boundary of the State 
Department of Natural Resources and Lake Newnan, were not numbered for 
evaluation if a majority of the basin divide could not be determined from U. S. 
Geological Survey Quadrangle map. Examination of the numbered basin shows that 
some basins are located in borrow pits and roadside ditches and other basins have 
been altered by development. These basins have been omitted from evaluation. The 
basins omitted are listed on Table 3. 

D. SOLUTION CAVERNS 

Field assessment of the depression basins disclosed the presence of solution caverns 
in the bottom of some basins. Solution caverns provide a direct discharge into the 
deep water (Floridan) aquifer and are one of the sources of recharge to the aquifer. 
PermeabiUty rates assigned to these basins range from 12.6—30 ft/day for evaluation 
purposes though the rate may be higher. 

One of the largest solution caverns found is located in Basin No. 9, Section 6, T9S, 
R19E on maps F2H and G2H. The flood plain elevations for Basin No. 9 is based on 
a permeability rate of 30 ft/day. Field observations of this solution cavern shows 
that the flood in the basin probably will not reach as high as computed data suggests 
due to the extremely large discharge capacity of the cavern, but the area leading to 
the cavern is located in wooded wetland hammock and should be included in the 
flood plain. Therefore, flood plaining the basins with solution caverns should be 
based on the physical characteristics of the areas adjacent to the cavern in 
conjunction with the result of the computer evaluation presented. 

The basins classified with solution caverns are listed on Table 4. 

E. COMBINED BASINS 

An evaluation of the depression basins shows that the volume of runoff from some 
basins exceeds the storage capacity of the depression, and overflow into an adjacent 
basin will occur. Other basins may discharge all runoff through culverts or other 
drainage structures into adjacent basins. In order to determine the effect of the 
additional runoff to the receiving basin, all basins involved in each receiving basin 
were combined and the input data revised and re-evaluated by the Retention Basin 
Analysis computer program. All basins that were combined and evaluated as a unit 
were re-numbered for computer generation. The combined basins are as Usted in 
Table 5 and the basin numbering system should be self-explanatory. 

36 



TABLE 3 
BASINS OMITTED 



Basin 
Number 

6-10 

7-11 
13,14 

15,16 

1,2 

2 

1,4 

9 

16 

19,20 

33,34,36 
40,41,43 

2 

1 

3 

13 

19 

16-20 

22-23 

25 

29 

32 

19 

18 

8 

3 

1 

2 

6 

1 &2 

2 



Section 

11 

14 

14 

27 
34 

22 
22 
22 
22 
33 



Township 

TIOS 

TIOS 

TIOS 

T9S 

T9S 

TIOS 

TIOS 

TIOS 

TIOS 

TIOS 



D.L. Clinch Grant 2 



4 


TIOS 


4 


TIOS 


4 


TIOS 


4 


TIOS 


21 


TIOS 


21 


TIOS 


21 


TIOS 


21 


TIOS 


21 


TIOS 


7 


TIOS 


Napier Grant 1 




9 


TIOS 


3 


TIOS 


10 


TIOS 


15 


TIOS 


15 


T9S 


27 


T9S 


34 


T9S 



Range 
R19E 

R19E 

R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 



R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 

R19E 
R20E 
R20E 
R20E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 



Map 
Number Remarks 

MM9 Roadside Ditch 

NN 1 Basin Altered 

0010 Roadside Ditch 

DD7 Roadside Ditch 

FF7 Roadside Ditch 

QQ8 Roadside Ditch 

QQ7 Roadside Ditch 

RR7 Roadside Ditch 

RR8 Borrow Pit 

HH6 Basin Altered 

QQ 11 Contours Incorrect 

116 Basin Altered 

116 Contours Incorrect 

JJ5 Borrow Pit 

KK5 Roadside Ditch 

K4H Roadside Ditches 

SS6 Roadside Ditches 

SS6 Basin Altered 

SS6 Borrow Pit 

SS6 Roadside Ditch 

H3H Borrow Pit 

QQ 12 Basin Altered 

H4H Roadside Ditch 

KK19 Borrow Pit 

LL19 Borrow Pit 

NN 1 8 Borrow Pit 

ASH Devils Millhopper 

DD6 Roadside Ditch 

FF7 Roadside Ditch 



37 







TABLE 3 












BASINS OMiriED 
(Continued) 






Basin 
Number 


Section 


Township 


Range 


Map 
Number 


Remarks 


11 


22 


T9S 


R19E 


QQ7 


Borrow Pit 


2 


11 


TIOS 


R20E 


LL19 


Borrow Pit 


1 


26 


TIOS 


R20E 


KllH 


Roadside Ditch 


1 


24 


T9S 


R20E 


B12H 


Stream Basin 


4 


12 


TIOS 


R20E 


H12H 


Roadside Ditch 


2 


19 


TIOS 


R21E 


J12H 


Stream Basin 


10 


12 


TIOS 


R19E 


NNll 


Roadside Ditch 


5 


12 


TIOS 


R19E 


NNIO- 
MMIO 


Roadside Ditch 


26 


11 


TIOS 


R19E 


NNIO 


Roadside Ditch 


6 


11 


TIOS 


R20E 


LL20 


Roadside Ditch 


2 


7 


TIOS 


R20E 


MM12 


Roadside Ditch 


14 


Gary Grant 3 






QQIO 


Basin Altered 


4 


13 


TIOS 


R19E 




Basin Altered 



38 



TABLE 4 
SOLUTION CAVERN BASINS 



Basin 










Number 


Section 


Township 


Range 


Map Number 


14 


22 


TIOS 


R20E 


JIOH 


6 


Napier Grant 1 




PPll 




10 


12 


TIOS 


R18E 


HIH 


10 


1 


TIOS 


RISE 


G1H«& 
G2H 


6 


36 


T9S 


RISE 


EIH&FIH 


30 


33 


T9S 


R19E 


HH6 


22 


22 


TIOS 


R19E 


RR7 & RRS 


5 


21 


TIOS 


R19E 


J4H 


3 


4 


TIOS 


R19E 


116 


7 


20 


TIOS 


R19E 


K4H 


5 


18 


TIOS 


R19E 


I2H 


9 


6 


TIOS 


R19E 


F2H&G2H 


13 


24 


TIOS 


RISE 


KIH 


6 


7 


TIOS 


R19E 


G2H 


3 


13 


T9S 


RISE 


AlH 



39 



TABLE 5 
COMBINED BASINS 



Basin 
Number 

807 

1302 

1110 
309 

208 

166 

304 
1415 

356 
9415 

908 

809 

708 
1332 

3702 



Section 

24 
25 

25 
36 

36 

30 

36 
12 
12 
13 

15 

15 

17 
18 

20 



Township Range 



T9S 


R18E 


T9S 


RISE 


T9S 


R18E 


T9S 


R18E 



T9S 



T9S 



T9S 



R18E 



R19E 



T9S 


R18E 


TIOS 


R18E 


TIOS 


R18E 


TIOS 


R18E 


T9S 


R19E 


T9S 


R19E 


T9S 


R19E 


T9S 


R19E 



R19E 



7654 



20 



T9S 



R19E 



Remarks 

No. 8 Discharge to No. 7 

No. 13, Sec. 35,T9S, R18E, 
Discharge to No. 2 

No. 1 1 Discharge to No. 10 

No. 3, Sec. 1,T10S, R18E, 
Discharge to No. 9 

No. 2, Sec. 1,T10S, R18E, 
Discharge to No. 8 

No. 1 &6, Sec. 25,T9S, R18E, 
Discharge to No. 6 

No. 3 Discharge to No. 4 

No. 14 Discharge to No. 15 

Nos. 3 & 5 Discharge to No. 6 

No. 9 Discharge to No. 14, 
Discharge to No. 15 

No. 9, Sec. 16, T9S, R19E, 
Discharge to No. 8 

No. 8, Sec. 16,T9S, R19E, 
Discharge to No. 9 

No. 7 Discharge to No. 8 

No. 3, Sec. 24,T9S, R18E«& 
Nos. 1 «&3, Sec. 18,T9S, R19E, 
Discharge to No. 2 

No. 11, Sec. 16,T9S, R19E; 
Nos. 2,3,4,5, «& 6, Sec. 17, 
T9S, R19E&N0. 6, Sec. 20, 
T9S, R19E, Discharge to No. 2 

Nos. 4,5,6 & 7, Sec. 21,T9S, 
R19E, Discharge to No. 4 



40 







TABLE 5 








COMBINED BASINS 






(Continued) 




Basin 








Number 


Section 


Township 


Range 


8923 


21 


T9S 


R19E 


619 


21 


T9S 


R19E 


1012 


21 


T9S 


R19E 


2324 


21 


T9S 


R19E 


304 


22 


T9S 


R19E 


503 


23 


T9S 


R19E 


503 


27 


T9S 


R19E 


510 


27 


T9S 


R19E 


3423 


28 


T9S 


R19E 



3015 
1105 
2334 
3624 
3837 
2310 

7631 

1235 



29 
29 
29 
29 
29 
30 

31 

32 



T9S 
T9S 
T9S 
T9S 
T9S 
T9S 

T9S 

T9S 



R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 
R19E 

R19E 

R19E 



Remarks 

Nos. 1,2,8 & 9 Discharge to No. 3 

No. 6, Sec. 28, T9S, R19E, 
Discharge to No. 19 

No. 1 Discharge to No. 1 2 

No. 23 Discharge to No. 24 

No. 3 Discharge to No. 4 

No. 5 Discharge to No. 3 

No. 5, Sec. 22,T9S, R19E, 
Discharge to No. 3 

No. 5, Discharge to No. 10 

Nos. 13 & 14, Sec. 21,T9S, 
R19E, Discharge to No. 2, 
Sec. 28,T9S, R19E, andNo. 8 
Sec. 28, T9S, R19E, Discharge 
to No. 1 3 

No. 3 Discharge to No. 1 5 

Nos. 10 & 1 1 Discharge to No. 5 

No. 23 Discharge to No. 34 

No. 36 Discharge to No. 24 

No. 38 Discharge to No. 37 

Nos. 2,3,9,11 & 12 Discharge 
to No. 10 

Nos. 2,3,4,6 & 7 Discharge to 
No. 1, Sec. 31 

Nos. 32, 33 & 35, Sec. 29, T9S, 
R19E,&No. 13, Sec. 30, T9S, 
R19E and No. 4, Sec. 32, T9S, 
R19E Discharge to No. 5 



41 



Basin 
Number 

807 

415 

1213 



507 

1921 

223 

3230 

506 

809 

403 

110 

6718 



107 
1109 

504 

407 

1602 

1315 





TABLE 5 






COMBINED BASINS 




(Continued) 




Section 


Township 


Range 


32 


T9S 


R19E 


32 


T9S 


R19E 



33 



33 

33 

33 

33 

35 

35 

3 

4 

4 



T9S 



R19E 



T9S 


R19E 


T9S 


R19E 


T9S 


R19E 


T9S 


R19E 


T9S 


R19E 


T9S 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 



Remarks 

No. 8 Discharge to No. 7 

No. 4, Sec. 5, TIOS, R19E, 
Discharge to No. 1 5 

No. 21, Sec. 28, T9S, R19E, 
Discharge to No. 1, Sec. 33, 
T9S, R19E which discharges to 
No. 2 which discharges to No. 3 

No. 5 Discharge to No. 7 

No. 19 Discharge to No. 21 

No. 22 Discharge to No. 23 

No. 32 Discharge to No. 30 

No. 5 Discharge to No. 6 

No. 8 Discharge to No. 9 

No. 4 Discharge to No. 3 

No. 1 Discharge to No. 1 1 

No. 6 Discharge to No. 7 which 
discharges to No 8 and No. 1, 
Sec. 5, TIOS, R19E Discharge 
to No. 8 



TIOS 


R19E 


No. 1 Discharge to No. 7 


TIOS 


R19E 


Nos. 9, 10 & 11, Sec. 31, 
T9S, R19E, Discharge to N( 


TIOS 


R19E 


No. 5 Discharge to No. 4 


TIOS 


R19E 


No. 4 Discharge to No. 7 


TIOS 


R19E 


No. 1 6 Discharge to No. 3 


TIOS 


R19E 


No. 13 Discharge to No. 15 



42 



Basin 
Number 

8123 



910 
113 

4611 
405 

817 
2421 

5322 

3412 

701 

3908 

8121 

2625 
1012 

203 

1215 

69 

405 



Section 



8 
8 

8 

9 

11 

11 

11 

11 
12 
12 

13 

14 
14 
15 
15 
15 
16 



TABLE 5 

COMBINED BASINS 
(Continued) 

Township Range 

TIOS R19E 



TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 



TIOS 



R19E 



TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 



Remarks 

Nos. 8& 12, Sec. 6, TIOS, 
R19E, Discharge to No, 1 and 
is combined with Nos. 2,3 & 13 
and Nos. 4 & 7, Sec. 8, TIOS, 
R19E 

No. 9 Discharge to No. 1 

No. 11, Sec. 5, TIOS, R19E, 
Discharge to No. 3 

No. 1 4 & 6 Discharge to No. 1 1 

No. 4 Discharge to No. 5 

Nos. 1 8 & 1 9 Discharge to No. 1 7 

No. 24 Discharge to No. 21 

Nos. 25, 23 & 20 Discharge 

No. 22 

Nos. 13 & 14 Discharge to No. 12 

No. 7 Discharge to No. 1 

No. 3, Sec. 13,T10S, R19E, 

Discharge to No. 9, Sec. 1 2, 

TIOS, R19E, which Discharges to No. 8 

No. 8 Clinch Grant 1 Disch. to 
No. 1 Clinch Grant 1 Disch. to 
No. 2 Discharges to No. 1 

No. 26 Discharge to No. 25 

No. 1 Discharge to No. 1 2 

No. 3 Discharge to No. 2 

No. 1 2 Discharge to No. 1 5 

No. 6 Discharge to No. 9 

No. 4 Discharge to No. 5 



l[ 

r 



43 



I' 







TABLE 5 








COMBINED BASINS 






(Continued) 




Basin 








Number 


Section 


Township 


Range 


910 


16 


TIOS 


R19E 


1351 


17 


TIOS 


R19E 


201 


18 


TIOS 


R19E 


1411 


18 


TIOS 


R19E 


1211 


19 


TIOS 


R19E 


203 


20 


TIOS 


R19E 


408 


20 


TIOS 


R19E 


1363 


21 


TIOS 


R19E 


9121 


21 


TIOS 


R19E 


5786 


22 


TIOS 


R19D 



2323 

8010 

2322 
2822 

605 
7015 
9014 

201 
8214 

809 



22 

22 
22 
22 

26 

27 
27 
28 
28 
29 



TIOS 

TIOS 
TIOS 
TIOS 



R19E 

R19E 
R19E 
R19E 



TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 


TIOS 


R19E 



Remarks 

No. 9 Discharge to No. 1 

Nos. 1 3 & 1 5 Discharge to No. 1 

No. 2 Discharge to No. 1 
No. 1 4 Discharge to No. 1 1 

No. 1 2 Discharge to No. 1 1 

No. 2 Discharge to No. 3 

No. 4 Discharge to 

No. 13, Sec. 16, TIOS, R19E, 
&No. 6, Sec. 21,T10S, R19E, 
Discharge to No. 3 

Nos. 9 & 10 Discharge to No. 21 

Nos. 35, 38 & 37 Discharge 
to No. 36 

No. 23 Gary Grant 3 Discharges 
to No. 23 

No. 8 Discharge to No. 10 

No. 29 & 30 Discharge to No. 22 

No. 28, Sec. 14, TIOS, R19E, 
&Nos. 1 &24, Sec. 22, TIOS, 
R19E, Discharge to No. 2 

No. 6 Discharge to No. 5 

No. 7 Discharge to No. 1 5 

Nos. 9 & 1 Discharge to No. 14 

No. 2 Discharge to No. 1 

Nos. 8, 12, 18 & 14 Combined 

No. 8 Discharge to No. 9 



44 



Basin 
Number 

1110 
501 

604 
1211 
1314 
3301 

6727 
7824 

8029 

201 

4678 
2327 
1102 

3534 
1514 

815 
1311 
1210 

308 







TABLE 5 






COMBINED BASINS 






(continued) 




Section 




Township 


Range 


29 




TIOS 


R19E 


30 




TIOS 


R19E 


30 




TIOS 


R19E 


30 




TIOS 


R19E 


30 




TIOS 


R19E 


Clark Grant 6 







Gary Grant 3 
Gary Grant 3 

Gary Grant 3 

Gary Grant 4 to Paynes Prairie 
Mcintosh Grant 4 
Napier Grant 1 
Napier Grant 1 

Napier Grant 1 
Napier Grant 2 
Clark Grant 5 
Clinch Grant 2 
Clinch Grant 2 
Clinch Grant 3 



Remarks 

No. 1 1 Discharge to No. 10 

No. 5, Sec. 29,T10S, RI9E, 
Discharge to No. 1 

No. 6 Discharge to No. 4 

No. 1 2 Discharge to No. 1 1 

No. 13 Discharge to No. 14 

Nos. 20,21,36,37,38,32,39 
47, 48 & 50 Gary Grant 3 Disch. 
to No. 1 Clark Grant 5 

Nos. 1,6&7, Sec. 27, TIOS, 
R19E, Disch. to No. 27 Gary Grant 3 

Nos. 27 & 28, Sec. 22, TIOS, 
R19E Discharge to No. 24 
Gary Grant 3 

No. 8, Sec. 27, TIOS, R19E 
Discharge to No. 29 Gary Grant 3 

No. 2 Discharge to No. 1 

No. 4, 6, & 7 Discharge to No. 8 

No. 23 Discharge to No. 27 

No. 1 Gary Grant 3 & No. 10 
Napier Grant I Discharge to 
No. 2 Napier Grant 1 

No. 35 Discharge to No. 34 
No. 1 5 Discharge to No. 1 4 
No. 8 Discharge to No. 15 
No. 13 Discharge to No. 1 1 
No. 1 2 Discharge to No. 1 
No. 3 Discharge to No. 8 



45 





TABLE 5 




COMBINED BASINS 




(Continued) 


Basin 




Number 


Section Township Range 


911 


Clinch Grant 3 


1114 


Clark Grant 5 


2322 


Clinch Grant 3 


1108 


Gary Grant 3 


7303 


Mcintosh Grant 4 



2521 

374 

1741 
2331 

203 
1514 
1939 
1615 
7645 
4812 
6308 

501 

1402 



CUnch Grant 3 



Gary Grant 4 






Gary Grant 3 






Napier Grant 1 






1 


TIOS 


R20E 


14 


TIOS 


R20E 


14 


TIOS 


R20E 


15 


TIOS 


R20E 


15 


TIOS 


R20E 


15 


TIOS 


R20E 


23 


TIOS 


R20E 


24 


TIOS 


R20E 


26 


TIOS 


R20E 



Remarks 

No. 9 Discharge to No, 1 1 

No. 1 1 Discharge to No. 14 

No. 23 Discharge to No. 22 

No. 1 1 Discharge to No. 8 

No. 24 & 25 Clinch Grant 3 & 
Nos. 2, 19 & 23 Mcintosh Grant 
4 Discharge to No. 3 Mcintosh 
Grant 4 

No. 20 Chnch Grant 3 & No. 5 
Mcintosh Grant 4 Discharge to 
No. 21 Clinch Grant 3 

Nos. 3, 5, 6 & 7 Gary Grant 3 
Discharge to No. 4 

No. 17 Discharge to No. 41 

Nos. 1 2 & 1 3 Gary Grant 3 
Discharge to No. 31 Napier Grant 1 

No. 2 Discharge to No. 3 

No. 15 Discharge to No. 14 

No. 1 9 & 3 Discharge to No. 9 

No. 1 6 Discharge to No. 1 5 

No. 4,6 & 7 Discharge to No. 5 

No. 14 & 8 Discharge to No. 12 

No. 63, Sec. 22, TIOS, R20E, 
Discharge to No. 8 

No. 5, Sec. 19, TIOS, R20E, 
Discharge to No. 1 

No. 1 &4, Sec. 27, TIOS, 
R20E, Discharge to No. 2 



46 







TABLE 5 










COMBINED BASINS 








(Continued) 






Basin 










Number 


Section 

20 


Township 

TIOS 


Range 
R21E 


Remarks 


503 


No. 5 Discharge to No. 3 


406 


24 


T9S 


R19E 


No. 4, Sec. 19, T9S, R19E, 
Discharge to No. 6 



1512 21 TIOS R19E No. 1 5 Discharge to No. 1 2 



47 



IDENTIFICATION OF EXISTING DEVELOPMENT WITHIN FLOOD PLAIN 
LIMITS 

Flood plain limits were placed on the NCFRPC mylar maps for each depression 
basin. Basins that have existing development, houses or structures within the flood 
plain were tabulated and are Usted as follows: 

BASINS WITH DEVELOPMENT WITHIN FLOOD PLAIN LIMITS 



Basin 








Basin 








No. 


Section 


Township 


Range 


No. 


Section 


Township 


Range 


9 


12 


TIGS 


R18E 


4 


3 


TIGS 


R19E 


10 


36 


T9S 


R19E 


23 


11 


TIGS 


R19E 


3 


36 


T9S 


R19E 


8 


12 


TIGS 


R19E 


8 


35 


T9S 


R19E 


1 


21 


TIGS 


R19E 


10 


35 


T9S 


R19E 


6 


22 


TIGS 


R19E 


6 


28 


T9S 


R19E 


2 


14 


TIGS 


R19E 


1 


33 


T9S 


R19E 


12 


21 


TIGS 


R19E 


21 


28 


T9S 


R19E 


13 


3 


Clinch Grant 


7 


21 


TIGS 


R19E 


8 


5 


Clark Grant 


15 


28 


TIGS 


R19E 


25 


5 


Clark Grant 


1 


23 


TIGS 


R19E 


8 


2 


Napier 


Grant 


1 


2 


TIGS 


R19E 


8 


4 


Gary Grant 


1 


27 


TIGS 


R19E 


2 


1 


Napier 


Grant 


6 


27 


TIGS 


R19E 


2 


30 


T9S 


R2GE 


3 


2 


TIGS 


R19E 


8 


11 


TIGS 


R2GE 


10 


14 


TIGS 


R19E 


IG 


11 


TIGS 


R2GE 


15 


8 


TIGS 


R19E 


4 


9 


TIGS 


R2GE 


3 


7 


TIGS 


R19E 


14 


11 


TIGS 


R2GE 


11 


21 


TIGS 


R19E 


2 


14 


TIGS 


R2GE 


9 


6 


TIGS 


R19E 


8 


16 


TIGS 


R2GE 


7 


3 


TIGS 


R19E 


1 


6 


TIGS 


R21E 



Each basin should be treated on an individual basis and the floor elevation and type 
of structure determined to verify if flooding occurs and the significant effect to the 
structure. The permeability rates assigned to the basins should be verified with 
actual soil conditions in the basin bottoms and changed as necessary for 
re-evaluation by the computer program. Where it is possible to do so, reduction of 
flood plain Umits and/or alleviating flooding of structures will require improvement 
of the basin bottom to retain excessive runoff and/or increase permeabihty rates. 

Alternate methods to determine if flooding is actually expected to occur and to 
alleviate flooding are: (1) verify all input data and re-evaluate by computer program, 
if necessary; (2) if flooding occurs, design improvement to basin bottom to improve 
retention and/or infiltration of excess runoff where possible; and, (3) combination 
of (2) above with alteration of land use plan in basin to reduce runoff. 



48 



SECTION 7 
STREAM BASINS EVALUATION AND PRELIMINARY DESIGN 



A. GENERAL 

The flow rate and hydraulic gradient for the 10 year flood channel, 100 year flood 
plain, and 25 year frequency storm for existing and proposed future land use 
conditions were determined utilizing computer techniques. The hydraulic gradients 
for the flood channel and plain were drafted on the topographic mylar maps (maps 
are property of NCFRPC) including the expected 25 year frequency storm flow 
rates at key locations such as roadway crossings. Plate 1 shows a typical reach of a 
stream basin with the pertinent information. 

The main stream and each lateral were stationed with the 0+00 station beginning at 
the approximate outlet of the stream basin with increasing stations in the upstream 
direction. A junction with a lateral or another stream shares a common station and 
the stations mcrease accordingly upstream. 

Flow rate and elevation data for the flood channel and flood plain are shown on the 
NCFRPC maps at pertinent locations such as upstream and downstream from 
roadway crossings and intermediate reaches. Plate 10 shows typical data placed on 
the NCFRPC maps for stream basin and an explanation for the data is as follows: 





Qe 


1500 


10 Year 


E 


100.6 




Qf 


1750 




F 


100.8 


100 Year 


E 


102.6 



F 102.6 

Q25 = 200 (located at roadway crossing) 



Explanation of the above symbols is: 
10 Year = Storm Frequency 



Qe 


1500 


E 


100.6 


Of 


1750 


F 


100.8 



10 yr. flow rate for 
existing land use conditions 

10 yr. flood stage (msl) for 
the flood channel for existing 
land use conditions 

10 yr. flow rato for future 
land use conditions 

10 yr. flood stage (msl) for 
the flood channel for future 
land use conditions 



49 




50 



1 00 Year = Storm Frequency E 102.0 = 100 yr. flood stage (msl) for 

the flood plain for existing 
land use conditions 

F 102.6 = 1 00 yr. flood stage (msl) for 

the flood plain for future land 
use conditions 

Q25 = 2000 equals the 25 yr. frequency storm flow rate expected 
at the road crossing 

Examination of the plotted flood channel and flood plain data were made to locate 
existing buildings and other structures, including major roadways, in the flood areas. 
Floor elevations of existing buildings were determined by field survey utiUzing point 
elevations as shown on the maps for bench marks. Buildings were considered to be 
flooded if the flood elevation is higher than the floor elevation. After flooded 
buildings and major roadways were located, alternate plans to alleviate flooding were 
analyzed and cost estimates prepared. The stream basins that were evaluated and are 
presented in this section are: Hogtown Creek, Tumblin Creek, Sweetwater Branch, 
Lake Forest Creek, Calf Pond Creek, and Little Hatchet Creek. 

Cost comparisons for the various alternates, together with operation and 
maintenance costs of structures, are summarized in Table 19. 

A schematic diagram and two tables are included in each stream basin evaluation. 
The schematic diagram shows the stream basin main and lateral streams location and 
the station where peak flows were determined. One table summarizes the runoff 
coefficients, time of concentration, and peak flows for each area upstream from a 
control section. The weighted runoff coefficient and time of concentration were 
accumulated in the downstream direction and are included in this table. The second 
table summarizes the hydraulics of existing channels and structures for the peak 
flow rates of the previous table. This tabje includes the stations where flood 
elevations are determined, existing drainage structures at roadway crossings (size & 
type) and the flood elevation for each peak flow rate analysis. The two tables 
described above show the data for the existing and proposed future land use 
conditions. 

B. HOGTOWN CREEK 

Hogtown Creek stream basin is the largest and the most complex stream basin in the 
project area. Plate 1 1 shows the schematic diagram of the stream basin. Table 6 
shows the summary data for the stream runoff anlysis and Table 7 shows the 
hydrauUcs of existing channels and structures including flood elevations. Plate 1 2 
shows the locations of all areas of flooding to existing development and alternate 
plans to alleviate flooding. 

Flooding of buildings occurs at six (6) areas in the stream basin. The areas are listed 
below: 



51 



PINE FOREST CK 




NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF 
HOGTOWN CREEK 

SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



0+00 
HAILE SINK 



DATE; 
SEPT, 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 



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71 





^LITTL€ HA TCHE T CK. 
AREA I 




V\ HOGTOWN CK. 
AREA 6 



" ' "l^' HOGTOWN CK. 
~ AREA 4 



HOGTOWN CK -^^"^v^'^^J ■ 
AREA 5 1*^:^#B^ 









*%iu 




HOGTOWN CK. 
AREA 2 



Aire \\F^M. I 



HOGTOWN CK. 
AREA I 



^^ HOGTOWN CK 

^^^^ ^ SWEETWATER 

AREA 3 

m I ALT I 

- . -^•. ■ .^'^-^'aSWEETWATER^!-^-^ LAKE FOREST CK 

I i , •' Bt^**^^3HBI^^ "^ AREA I >^-». 

'ife^ mam' -^^^ m 







AREAS OF FLOODING TO EXISTING DE- 
VELOPMENT 



HOGTOWN CREEK 



— ruMBLiN Cfieex 



SWEETWATER BRANCH 



LAKE FOREST CREEK 



TTLE HATCHET CREEK 



ALTERNATE PLANS TO ALLEVIATE 
FLOODING 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



LOCATION MAP 
AREAS OF FLOODING TO 
EXISTING DEVELOPMENT 



DATE PROJECT NO 

SEPT, I9T4 4194 



Area No. Location 

1 Clear Lake 

2 Downstream SR26A to 34th Street 

3 8th Avenue 

4 Springstead & Pine Forest Creek 

5 Possum Creek at 1 6th Avenue 

6 Three Lakes Creek at 34th Street 

Evaluations of the flooding problem and alternate plans for alleviating flooding at 
each area are presented below: 

Area ( 1 ) — Clear Lake 

The flood stages at the Clear Lake area are in part affected by the stages in the Haile 
Sink area. Haile Sink provides the outlet for the Hogtown Creek basin and has 
limited discharge capacity to the deep water aquifer through a solution cavern. When 
the rate of inflow from excess basin runoff exceeds the discharge capacity of the 
sink, the flood water rises and overflows into Lake Kanapaha and Sugarfoot Prairie. 
Gage readings from staff gages at Haile Sink and Lake Kanapaha by the U. S. 
Geological Survey show that Lake Kanapaha is a perched water table type lake. 
Water levels in Haile Sink rise and fall with the piezometric surface of the deep water 
aquifer. Haile Sink overflows into Lake Kanapaha at approximately 52.0- feet 
above mean sea level (msl). 

The discharge capacity of the Haile Sink solution cavity was estimated from 
observation data (U.S. Geological Survey data) produced by the storm of August 
1972. The inflow hydrograph was reproduced and the volume of inflow and volume 
of storage was estimated for various stages in the sink area. The discharge capacity 
was then computed from the time required for rise and fall of the stages. Plate 13 
shows the stage-storage curve for the Haile Sink area. A discharge capacity of 
approximately 65 1 cfs was estimated for Haile Sink for various stages ranging from 
52.0 to 58.0 ft. msl. 

The U. S. Geological Survey stream gage data for the water stage recorder located at 
Howze Road shows that the peak discharge from Hogtown Creek is reduced by the 
storage available in Sugarfoot Prairie. Plate 14 shows the hydraulic gradient and 
discharge for the storm of August 1972. The peak discharge of 1420 cfs and 70.28 
ft. msl on SR26A was reduced to 634 cfs at 60.0 ft. msl at Howze Road. The peak 
discharge was also delayed for approximately 24 hours. The stage-discharge at 
Howze Road is affected by the backwater effect of the water level in the Haile Sink 
area. 

Flood routing of the storage available in the Sugarfoot Prairie area was necessary to 
determine the expected flood stage in the Clear Lake area. Water levels caused by 
the storage of runoff to the Haile Sink area were compared with the flood routed 
values to determine the effect from the stages in Haile Sink. Runoff coefficients for 
Hogtown Basin as shown on the summary table of the stream basin runoff analysis 
are 0.37 for existing land use conditions and 0.47 for future land use conditions. 
Analysis of the storm of August 1972 shows that the hydrograph produced at 



73 




TOTAL HAILE SINK - 
SUGARFOOT PRAIRIE 

HAILE SINK - LAKE 
KANAPAHA TO 1-75 



SUGARFOOT PRAIRIE (UP 
STREAM FROM HOWZE RD 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



STAGE - STORAGE CURVE 
HAILE SINK AREA 



SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 
CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE: 
SEPT, 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 13 



74 









NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 


HOGTOWN CREEK - HYDRAULIC 

GRADIENTS OF RUNOFF OF 

AUGUST, 1972 


SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 
CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 


UJ 

1- 
< 
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Q. 




lil 






























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150 + 00 200+00 

SR 26A 
(202 f 00) 


-" ' 


> 






































PROJECT NO. 
4194 


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DATE: 
SEPT., 1974 










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00 50 + 00 100+00 

r SINK 1 - 75 HOWZE RD. 
00) (57 / 00) (91 -1-50) 

LOCATION 




















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70.0 
68.0 

66.0 
64.0 

g 62.0 

5 60.0 
LlI 

UJ C 

58.0 

56.0 
54.0 
52. o' 













75 



Howze Road has a runoff coefficient value of approximately 0.35. This value 
compares very closely to the computed existing runoff coefficient of 0.37. Flood 
routing was started with the Haile Sink water level of 57.0 ft. msl. The normal sink 
level ranges from 52.0 to 54.0 ft. msl, but the assumption that flood producing 
rainfall generally comes during a high antecedent moisture condition validates using 
the higher water level. The total watershed drainage area into Haile Sink including 
Hogtown Creek and the surrounding areas around Lake Kanapaha is approximately 
12,500 acres. 

Results of the evaluation for determining stages in the Haile Sink area and the flood 
routing at Howze Road are as follows: 

10 Year (6.72" rainfaD) 100 Year (9.60" rainfall) 



Land Use 
Condition 


Volume 
Runoff 


Stage 
Haile 
Sink 


Flood Routing 
@ Howze Road 


Volume 
Runoff 


Stage 
HaUe 
Sink 


Flood Routing 
@ Howze Road 




(Ac-ft) 


(msl) 


CMcfs) Stage<msl) 


(Ac-ft) 


(msl) 


Q(cfs) 


Stage (msl) 


Existing 


2695 


59.5 


908 60.0 


3700 


60.7 


1613 


61.5 


Future 


3290 


60.5 


1314 60.5 


4750 


62.0 


2684 


62.8 



Extrapolating the hydraulic gradients upstream from Howze Road to the area 
downstream of SR26A, the flood stage at the Clear Lake are estimated to be: 10 
year, existing @ 61.5 ft. msl and future @ 62.0 ft. msl; and 100 year, existing @ 63.0 
ft. msl and future 63.5 msl. The highest known flood stage was approximately 61.2 
ft. msl measured by the Alachua County Engineering Department after hurricane 
Dora of 1 964. Approximately forty-eight houses are located within the flood plain 
Umits. 

Alternate No. 1 plan is to construct a dike including interior rim canal surrounding 
the existing development and a pumping station to pump the interior flood waters 
into Sugarfoot Prairie. The proposed dike will be tied to high ground on the east 
bank of Seville Height Creek. A separate dike with small pump station is proposed 
to protect the home located at the end of West University Avenue. Plate 12 shows 
the location of Area (1) and Alternate No. 1 plan. Construction cost estimate for 
this Alternate plan is as follows: 

Dike 

Clearing & Grubbing 

34 acres @ $ 1 ,000/acre $ 34,00 

Earthwork Including Excavation 
& Dike Construction & Dike @ 
House on W. University Ave. 232,400 

Excavation -Rim Canal & Spoil 

Placement 65,000 (» $500/ Acre 1 95,000 

Seeding & Mulching 34 Acres @ 

$500/ Acre 17,000 

Pumping Station including Bldg. , 
Piping, Aux. Engine, etc., including 
pump sta. @ house on W. Uni. Ave. 487,600 

Total Alternate No. 1 $966,000 

76 



Alternate No. 2 plan is to construct a dike and pumping station downstream from 
1-75 and pump the excess runoff into the Haile Sink-Lake Kanapaha area. This 
alternate requires major channelization from the pump station to the Clear Lake 
area to provide a very flat hydrauUc gradient. The proposed maximum water level at 
pump station is 57.0 ft. msl and at Clear Lake, 59.0 ft. msl. The total volume of 
excess runoff of approximately 4700 acre ft. will be stored in the Haile Sink and 
Lake Kanapaha area with the water level at approximately 64.5 ft. msl. It may be 
necessary to move a house located adjacent to the sink if the house is flooded. The 
pump station will have sufficient capacity to pump the maximum discharge from 
Hogtown Creek, or approximately 4000 cfs. Channel right-of-way width varies from 
500 feet without spoil removal to 350 feet with spoil removal. Construction cost 
estimate for Alternate No. 3 is as follows: 



Dike, Pump Station & Channelization 

without spoil removal $4,000,000 

Dike, Pump Station & ChanneUzation 

with spoil removal $5,000,000 

The extremely high cost in conjunction with great adverse environmental effect to 
the Kanapaha Prairie and Haile Sink areas makes this alternate plan very undesirable 
and should not be considered. 

Alternate No. 3 plan provides for the local governing authority to purchase the 
houses that are located within the flood plain limits. The approximate forty-eight 
(48) houses that are affected have a total gross assessed value as listed with Alachua 
County Tax Assessor office of $ 1 ,843,000. 

Alternate No. 4 plan would require raising each house located within the flood plain 
limits such that the floor elevation is above the expected flood stage. Raising a house 
of masonry construction with concrete floor slab requires constructing pier supports 
for the concrete slab and a new wall support on the existing footing. This type of 
construction is specialized but may be successfully employed on structures of 
masonry construction. There are approximately forty-eight (48) houses located 
within the flood plain limits. Construction cost estimates for this plan are based on 
an average floor area, including garages, of 2400 square feet per house at a cost of 
five dollars per square foot. An estimate of $576,000 is required for this alternate. 

Area (2) Station 150+00 to Station 219+00 
(Downstream and Upstream of SR 26 A) 

The existing channel in this reach of Hogtown Creek is inadequate to carry the peak 
discharge. The channel bottom gradient rises sharply from an approximate elevation 
of 59.01 ft. msl at station 160+00 to 65.0^ ft. msl at station 180+00 (2000 ft. ± 
downstream from SR26A). The inadequate channel capacity causes the peak 
discharge to overflow the banks into existing developed areas around the houses at 
the east part of Anglewood Subdivision, apartments around Village 34 (with 
possibiUties of other complexes in the same area not shown on topographic maps), 
the area upstream from Newberry Road to N. W. 34th Street, and at the University 
of Florida animal laboratory on S. W. 34th Street. 



77 



Alternate No. 1 plan is to construct a dike with pump station to protect the 
University of Florida Animal Laboratory and channel improvements in Hogtown 
Creek from station 150+00 to the existmg grade control structure at station 219+00 
(upstream of 34th Street). Channel improvement requirements are as follows: 

Right-of-Way Width 





Side 
Slope 


W/SpoU 
Removal 


W/0 Spoil 
Removal 


Bottom 
Width 


Average 
Depth 


Channel 
Slope 


1 50+00 to 
1 02+00 (SR26A) 


2:1 


200 ft 


300 ft 


120 ft 


8 ft 


0.0002 


201+00 (SR26A) 
to 219+00 


1:1 





160 ft 


90 ft 


14 ft 


0.0002 



Channel protection such as rip-rap or concrete structures will be required at existing 
drainage culverts from the Royal Park shopping center, under each bridge, at curves 
of the new channel alignment, and at the downstream end of the existing grade 
control structure. Construction cost estimates for tliis alternate plan are as follows: 

Channel Construction — Without Spoil Removal 

315,700Cu. Yd.@$1.50/Cu.Yd. $ 473,550 

Channel Protection 36,450 

Dike & Pump @ University of Florida 

Animal Laboratory 84,000 

Total Alternate No. 1 

Without Spoil Removal $ 594,000 

Spoil Removal 

3 1 5,700 C. Y. @ $2.00/Cu. Yd. 631,000 

Total Alternate No. 1 Plan With 

Spoil Removal $1,225,000 

Alternate No. 2 plan provides for the local governing authority to purchase all 
existing buildings located within the flood plain limits. Approximately fifteen homes 
and five buildings not including possible apartments not shown on topographic maps 
are located within the flood limits. Gross assessed value of the buildings identified is 
approximately $1,284,000 including the University of Florida Animal Laboratory 
and the store complex between the creek and Newberry Road. 

Alternate No. 3 plan consists of raising each of the houses and buildings that are 
located within the flood plain limits. There are approximately fifteen houses, one 
commercial building and the buildings ai the University of Florida, Animal 
Laboratory located in the flood plain. Construction cost estimate is based on an 
average house floor area of 2400 square feet per house. Apartments and commercial 
buildings, including University of Florida Animal Laboratory floor areas, were 
estimated from the building sizes as shown on the topographic maps. Cost estimates 
are as follows and do not include other possible apartments not shown on the 
topographic maps. 



78 



Raised Houses 

Fifteen Houses @ $5/sq.ft. S 1 80,000 

Raised Buildings 
Approximately 60,000 sq. ft. 

@ $8/sq.ft. 480,000 

Total Alternate No. 3 Plan $660,000 

Investigation should be performed to determine if additional apartment complexes 
were constructed in the flood plain after topographic maps were prepared. Cost 
estimates should be revised and evaluated before this alternate is considered. 

Area (3) - N. W. 8th Avenue 

Area (3) includes the reach from station 219+00 to N. W. 22nd Street on Hogtown 
Creek and to station 273+75 on Possum Creek. Existing developments expected to 
be flooded in this area are: (1) several houses on the east side of N. W. 34th Street 
and south of N. W. 8th Avenue; (2) houses at the west end of N. W. 10th Avenue 
and N. W. 25th Terrace; and, (5) houses at the west end of N. W, 1 1th Avenue and 
N. W. 9th Avenue. 

Alternate No. 1 plan is to construct a dike and pump station at each of the three 
locations to provide flood protection for the buildings. Construction cost estimates 
for each of the tliree locations, including the total for dike and pump station 
construction, are as follows: 

Dike & Pump Station @ N. W. 34th Street S 69,000 

Dike & Pump Station @ N. W. 1 0th Avenue 50,000 

Dike & Pump Station @ N. W. 11 th & 9th Avenue 64,000 



Total Alternate No. 1 Plan $183,000 

Alternate No. 2 plan is to construct major channels and alter existing structures 
and/or construct new structures as required to lower the flood stages in the three 
affected locations. This alternate requires the construction of Alternate No. 1 plan 
for Area (2) as an integral part of the total system. The following structures would 
be required: replace the existing grade control structure as station 219+00 with a 
larger structure; add three more grade control structures (one on Possum Creek and 
two on Hogtown Creek); renovate the two existing structures on N. W. 8th Avenue 
and the structure on N. W. 22nd Street on Hogtown Creek; and construct major 
canals with average channel depth of about ten feet and bottom width of 1 20 feet 
between station 219+00 and 240+00, and 70 feet bottom width from station 
240+00 to N. W. 22nd Street on Hogtown Creek and station 240+00 to station 
273+74 on Possum Creek. Construction cost estimates range from approximately 
two million dollars without spoil removal to four million dollars with spoil removal. 
Extremely high construction cost and the great environmental affects on the 
hardwood hammock areas around N. W. 8th Avenue makes this alternate very 
undesirable and should not be considered 



79 



Alternate No. 3 plan provides for the local governing authority to purchase the 
buildings that are located within the flood plain limits. Approximately eight 
houses are located in the flood plain and the gross assessed value of all the houses 
total approximately $258,000. Gross property values for each of the three locations 
are as follows: 

Purchase Houses @ N. W. 34th Street $ 29,000 

Purchase Houses @ N. W. 1 0th Avenue 49,000 

Purchase Houses @ N. W. 1 1 & 9 Avenue 18Q.0QQ 

Total Alternate No. 3 Plan $258,000 

Alternate No. 4 plan is to raise the houses in each of the three locations such that 
the floor elevation is above the expected flood stage. The construction cost estimate 
is based on an average floor area of 2400 square feet per house, as follows: 

Raise House @ N. W. 34th Street 

One house @ $5/sq. ft. $ 1 2,000 

Raise Houses @ N. W. 10th Avenue 

Two houses @ $5/sq. ft. 24,000 

Raise Houses @ N. W. 1 1 th Avenue 

Five houses @ $5/sq. ft. 60,000 



Total Alternate No. 4 Plan $96,000 

Area (4) — Springstead Creek at Pine Forest Creek 

Flooding occurs at the west half of the Varsity Mobile Home Park on Pine Forest 
Creek and flood water rises into the yards of the houses located on Springstead 
Creek between N. W. 6th Street and the junction with Pine Forest Creek. The 
existing structure at N. W. 6th Street is inefficient in that approximately six feet of 
head is required to discharge the peak flow of 1712 cfs. Pine Forest Creek under 
existing conditions is a narrow channel and is not adequate to carry the peak flow of 
650 cfs. 

Alternate No. 1 plan is to replace the existing structure at N. W. 6th Street with two 
8 ft. (H) X 10 ft. (W) culverts to reduce the head loss and to enlarge the existing Pine 
Forest Creek channel from the junction with Springstead Creek to N. W. 39th 
Avenue. The west side of Varsity Mobile Home Park is located such that mobile 
homes are located very close to the existing drainage ditch, and any improvement to 
enlarge the Pine Forest Creek channel in this area would be very difficult. The 
proposed improvement to Pine Forest Creek is to route the discharge from N. W. 
39th Avenue to the west side of the railroad track through a new structure (2 - 66" 
RCP) located approximately 200 feet south of N. W. 39th Avenue and to improve 
the drainage channel on the west side of the railroad track to the junction with 
Springstead Creek. The proposed new channel alignment and improvement will 
lower the flood stage to alleviate flooding of the mobile home park. Proposed 
channel requirements are as follows, including spoil removal: 



80 



Bottom Average Channel 
Pine Forest Creek (2:1 Side Slope) Right-of-way Width Depth Slope 



485+20 (Junction w/Springstead) ^q ^^ 20 ft 10 ft 003 

to 497+60 (Downstream 39th Ave.) 



Construction cost estimates for this alternate plan are as follows: 

Proposed New Two 8 ft. (H) x 10 ft. (W) 
Box Culverts at N. W. 6th St. & 
Springstead Creek $ 75,000 

Channel Improvement - Pine Forest Creek 
Excavation & Spoil Removal 
1 5,428 C.Y. @ $3.50/Cu.Yd. 54,000 

Proposed New Two 66" RCP at 

Railroad Crossing 25,000 

Total Alternate No. 1 Plan $1 54,000 

Alternate No. 2 plan provides for the local governing authority to purchase the 
buildings located within the flood plain limits. Approximately 85 mobile home 
trailers are located within the flood plain hmits. The floor elevations of the homes in 
this area are higher than the flood stage. The Varsity Mobile Home Park has an 
assessed value of $1 14,090 as shown on the records of the Alachua County Tax 
Assessor's office. No assessed value on the mobile home trailers was listed. 

Alternate No. 3 plan is to raise mobile homes located in the flood plain hmits so that 
the flood elevations are above the expected flood stage. This alternate plan is not 
recommended because the existing Pine Forest Creek channel is inadequate to carry 
the flow produced by rainfalls of less than 10 year frequency. There are 
approximately ten houses and eighty mobile homes located within the flood plain 
hmits. 



Area (5) — Possum Creek at N. W. 16th Avenue 

Ridgeview Creek junctions with Possum Creek just upstream of N. W. 16th Avenue. 
The existing structure on Possum Creek under N. W. 1 6th Avenue consists of three 8 
ft. (H) X 10 ft. (W) box culverts. The structure has poor hydrauUc characteristics in 
that the tailwater condition on the structure for the 100 year storm is only 4-5 feet 
deep, thereby causing the inlet of the structure to control the carry capacity of the 
structure. Flood stages upslioam from the structure encompass several houses that 
are constructed in the flood 1 lain. 

Alternate No. 1 plan is to lower the flood stage upstream from N. W. 16th Avenue 
to alleviate flooding of the existing buildings. Construction required includes: 
replacing the existing box culverts with three 8 ft. (H) x 12 ft. (W) box culverts with 
invert elevations at 84.0 ft. msl; channel improvement of Possum Creek from station 
280+75 (500 feet downstream of N. W. 16th Avenue) to station 295+75 (1000 feet 
upstream from N. W. 16th Avenue); constructing grade control structure on Possum 



81 



Creek at station 295+75; constructing channel improvements on Ridgeview Creek 
from station 290+75 Gunction with Possum Creek) to station 298+75 (700 feet 
upstream from N. W. 27th Terrace); replacing existing culverts at N. W. 27th Terrace 
with two 5 ft. (H) X 7 ft. (W) box culverts with invert elevations at 84.0 ft. msl; and, 
constructing a grade control on Ridgeview Creek at station 298+75. 

Pertinent design information for the improvement is as follows: 

CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT 





Right- 
W/SpoU 
Removal 


-of-Way 
W/0 SpoU 
Removal 


Bottom 
Width 


Average 
Depth 


Slope 


Possum Creek (2: 1 Slope) 
280+75 to 295+75 


100 ft. 


150 ft. 


65 ft. 


8 ft. 


0.0001 


Ridgeview Creek (2: 1 Slope) 
290+75 to 298+75 


80 ft. 


100 ft. 


20 ft. 


8 ft. 


0.0001 


STRUCTURES 












Grade Control 













Possum Creek @ 295+75 - 50 ft. weir 
Ridgeview Creek @ 298+75 - 12 ft. weir 

Drainage Structure - 1 6th Avenue - Three (3) - 8 ft.(H) x 12 ft.(W) box culverts 
Drainage Structure - 27th Terrace - Two (2) - 5 ft.(H) x 7 ft.(W) box culverts 

Construction cost estimate for this alternate plan is as follows: 

Channel Improvement, Excavation, W/0 Spoil 

Removal, 22,000 C.Y. @ $ 1 .50/Cu.Yd. $ 33,000 

Grade Control Structures (2) 11 5 ,000 

Drainage Structures 

3 - 8 ft.(H) X 1 2 ft.(W) Box Culverts 1 53,000 

2 - 5 ft.(H) X 7 ft.(W) Box Culverts 29,000 



Total Alternate No. 1 Plan 

W/0 Spoil Removal $333,000 

Total Alternate No. 1 Plan 

W/Spoil Removal @ $2.00/Cu.Yd. $374,000 

Alternate No. 2 Plan provides for the local governing authority to purchase the 
buildings that are located witliin the flood plain Umits. Ten houses are located 
within the flood plain Umits upstream of N. W. 1 6th Avenue. Gross assessed value 
of the houses is approximately $298,000. 

Alternate No. 3 plan is to raise the houses located within the flood plain limits such 
that the floor elevation is above the expected flood stage. There are approximately 
ten houses located within the flood plain limits. Construction cost estimates are 



82 



based on an average floor area of 2400 square feet per house. The cost estimate is as 
follows: 

Raise houses at Possum Creek 
&N. W. 16th Avenue 

Ten houses @ $5/sq. ft. $ 1 20,000 

Area (6) - Three Lake Creek @ N. W. 34th Street 

One house is located in the flood plain just upstream of Three Lakes Creek at N. W. 
34th Street. The 100 year flood stage is at approximately 128.2 feet msl and the 
floor elevation of the house is about 124.6 ft. msl. Six feet of head loss is required 
by the existing two 54" RCP to carry the 100 year peak flow of 590 cfs. 

Alternate No. 1 Plan is to install two 54" RCP in addition to the existing drainage 
structures. The additional structures, combined with the existing pipes, will lower 
the flood stage upstream to approximately 124.5 ft. msl for a peak flow of 590 cfs. 
Construction cost estimates are as follows: 

Three Lakes Creek @ N. W. 34th Street 
Two 54" RCP $34,000 

Alternate No. 2 Plan provides for the local governing authority to purchase the one 
house in the flood plain Hmits. The assessed value of the house is $22,000 as listed in 
the Alachua County Tax Assessor's office. 

Alternate No. 3 plan involves raising the house located within the flood plain such 
that the floor elevation is above the expected flood stage. Construction cost estimate 
is based on an average floor area of 2400 square feet per house. Cost estimate is as 
follows: 

Raise House ^ N. W. 34th Street 

One house @ $5/sq. ft. $ 1 2,000 

Other Areas of Concern 

Possum Creek is expected to overflow N. W. 39th Avenue during the 10 year and 
greater frequency storm based on future land use conditions. The existing drainage 
structure is one 6'(H) x 6'(W) box culvert. No existing developments are located 
within the flood plain limits in this area. Alleviating flooding to the roadway may be 
accomplished by replacement of or addition to the existing culverts to produce a 
drainage structure with larger capacity. 

The head waters of Possum Creek is the area of the Northwood Oaks and Pine 
Subdivision. Reference to the report of October 1973, "A Report on A Flood Plain 
and Water Control Program for the Headwaters of Little Haehet, Turkey, Blues and 
Hogtown Creeks," Alternate No. 2 Plan required the construction of grade control 
structures to reduce sedimentation being carried downstream and erosion to the 
existing channel. Although no existing buildings are located in the flood plain limits, 
construction of Alternate No. 2 Plan, Main Channel No. 2 should be considered. 



83 



The topographic maps show the ground elevation at the Northwood Subdivision 
sewage treatment plan to be approximately the same elevation as the flood plain 
limits. The sewage treatment site was filled prior to construction of the maintenance 
building, so the area should be checked for possible flood problems. 

Royal Park Creek flows through a depression just north and west of the Royal Park 
Mall on SR26 (Newberry Road). The depression outlet has been channelized to 
SR26 where the flow passes through two 5'(H) x 7'(W) box culverts which discharge 
into Hogtown Creek at the downstream side of SR26A. The NCFRPC topographic 
maps indicate that enough storage of storm water is provided by the depression to 
reduce the peak discharge of the Royal Park Creek significantly. The existing 
culverts under SR26 are adequate to carry the reduced peak discharge. Presently, the 
flood plain for this area is established by a backwater effect created from flow in 
Hogtown Creek which develops a higher flood elevation than the regulated flow 
from Royal Park Creek. This flood situation is not detrimental to any existing 
structures or roads. However, a loss of the depression's ability to act as a natural 
detention area (by filling, etc.) will cause a peak discharge from Royal Park Creek to 
develop flooding at a higher elevation than the flood plain presently developed by 
Hogtown Creek. A field investigation of the flood detention site indicated that the 
topography has been altered (by partial filling) relative to the NCFRPC topographic 
maps. The storage capacity of the detention site must be maintained or the culverts 
capacity under SR26 will probably have to be increased to prevent topping of the 
road and flooding of existing structures. Any changes in the topography of the 
depression warrants further investigation of the stream hydraulics. 

A number of depression basins are shown (see Plate 1 2) to be located within the 
boundaries of the stream basin divides. In many cases, the excess runoff in these 
basins are stored in the bottom of the depression with a few discharging into streams 
when the depression becomes full. Flood plain limits were determined for these 
depression basins and are shown on the NCFRPC maps. These depression drainage 
areas were excluded from the stream basins. The runoff which is now retained 
within the depression basins should be retained to avoid addition of excess runoff to 
the stream basins. 

The only outlet for the Hogtown Creek Basin at this time is Haile Sink. As described 
in previous parts of the report the capacity of Haile Sink to accept excess runoff is 
less than 100 cfs. There are two quarries located at the south end of Lake Kanapaha, 
one on the north side of Archer Road and one on the south side. As an alternate 
outlet for Haile Sink, the quarries should be investigated to determine the discharge 
capacity and the influence of such discharge on the water quality of the receiving 
aquifers. If the discharge capacity of either is found to be significant, and criteria of 
regulatory agencies are met, the quarries, especially the one on the north side of 
Archer Road, should be obtained by governing authority and modified to receive 
overflow from Lake Kanapaha. 

The possibility of discharging excess runoff by constructing a channel from Lake 
Kanapaha to Paynes Prairie was investigated. Gravity flow from Lake Kanapaha to 
Paynes Prairie by open channel is not feasible unless the water level in the Lake 
Kanapaha area is allowed to increase higher than 62 feet above MSL. Consequently, 
flood protection to the Clear Lake area cannot be accomphshed utilizing this 
concept. Gravity flow is not feasible since the water level in Paynes Prairie could rise 
above the leve in Lake Kanapaha. Discharge is possible by pumping from the Lake 
into a constructed channel to the prairie. This concept is not considered because of 
the adverse environmental effect oii the prairie by the storm water quality and 
quantity and extremely high construction cost. 



84 



Comparison of Runoff Coefficients 

Runoff coefficients are summarized in Table 6 for each sub-basin and accumulated 
at selected control stations. The Hogtown Creek basin accumulative runoff 
coefficients at SR26A are 0.37 for existing land use conditions and 0.47 for future 
proposed land use conditions. The greatest increase is found for those sub-basins 
located at the head waters of the various lateral where the areas are predominately 
undeveloped. Such areas arc Glenn Springs Creek (0.27 to 0.38), Three Lakes Creek 
(0.23 to 0.41), Monterey Creek (0.23 to 0.42) and Possum Creek (0.31 to 0.45) for 
existing and future land uses respectively. 

In most cases, continued development in accordance with the land use plan will 
increase the flood stage approximately 0.1 to 0.4 feet. This small range in increase of 
flood stages rarely warrants the use of retention and/or detention basins upstream. 
The flood stage in the Clear Lake area is determined by the stage in the Haile Sink 
area and is caused by the total volume of runoff from the stream basin, not the peak 
flows. An increase of approximately 1200l acre-feet of runoff may be expected 
from the basin to the Haile Sink area as development is increased according to the 
land use map. The increased volume will result from the increase in the runoff 
coefficient of the 12,5001 acre basin. The additional volume of runoff (12001 
acre-feet) will increase the flood stage about one-half foot in the Clear Lake area and 
will flood some 7 additional houses. If one of the alternate plans to alleviate 
flooding in the Clear Lake area is implemented, then the construction of upstream 
retention basins is not needed. Detention basins are of no value to flood prevention 
at Clear Lake since this type of facility does not decrease the total volume of water 
reaching the Kanapaha Lake area. 

If, however, none of the flood prevention plans described above is constructed, the 
use of upstream retention basins must be considered. Such consideration should be 
based upon the costs for retaining 1 200 acre-feet of runoff as opposed to the 
resulting flood damage to the seven additional houses in the Clear Lake area. The 
damage to buildings in the present flood plain will occur regardless of the 
construction of retention basins. 

TUMBLIN CREEK 

Plate 15 shows the schematic diagram of the Tumblin Creek stream basin. Table 8 
shows the summary data for the stream nmoff analysis and Table 9 shows the 
existing channel hydraulics and structures including flood elevations. The location of 
alternate plans to alleviate flooding is shown on Plate 12. 

Flooding occurs at one location in this stream basin which is at the drainage 
structure on 13th Steet (U.S. 441). The existing drainage structure at 13th Street is 
composed of three - 3.75 ft. (H) x 8 ft. (W) box culverts with invert elevations at 
68.3 1 mean sea level (msl). The existing structure has a very poor hydraulic 
characteristics in alignment. Upon inspection the north barrel of the structure, was 
found to be almost half filled with sand. As shown by the data on the existing 
channel hydraulics table, the 25 year peak How will reach the top of the road and 
the 100 year peak flow will flood the road to a depth of approximately 1-1/2 feet 
deep. Flooding will occur at the University Inn Motel and a house just south of the 
University inn. 



85 



CS 10 (5 AV) 

-r 160 + 00 


\ 143 + 50 (DEPOT RD) 


. CS 9 

140 + 00 


J/ 


/cS 8 

T 1 1 + 00 

%> y CS 7 \ 

'V^ 100 + 00 V CS 4 (S MAIN ST) 
y^ \ 107 + 50 

>rcs 6 \ 

A 90 + 00 \ 


7 / 




/-_ ,, \ CS 3 (S MAIN ST) 

4 A 1 r.^ \ 85 + 00 
^85+00 \ 


biven's \ ^ 


ARM ^ ^ 


\ CS 5 (13 ST) \ 
V.,35 + 80 \ 


\ ^/i^f/v's / 


\.ARM 1 


\ yes 2 
\ y^ 25 + 00 


V CS I (WILLISTON RD) 
"\l2 + 65 


N \ 


J\ PAYNES PRAIRIE 


11 


NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 


_A 


REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 


SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF 


V 


TUMBLIN CREEK 


SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 


\i 


CONSULTING ENGINEERS 




GAINESVILLE, FLA. 


DATE: 

SEPT, 1974 


PROJECT NO. 
4194 


PLATE 15 



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91 



Alternate Plan No. 1 is to alleviate the flooding of the building and roadway by 
improving of the channel and replacing the existing drainage structure with larger 
and more efficient ones. Channel improvement is required from Station 90+00 (700 
ft. downstream from 13th Street) to Station 104+00 (700 ft. upstream of 13th 
Street), and four - 5 ft. (H) x 8 ft. (W) box culverts are required to replace the 
existing structures. Pertinent information for the proposed improvement is as 
follows: 

Channel Improvement - Concrete Lined (1:1 Side Slopes) 



Tumbhn Creek Right-of-Way (Ft.) 


Bottom 
Width 


Average 
Depth 


Channel 
Slope 


90+00 to 1 00+00 60 


20 


8 


0.0001 


100+00 to 104+00 60 


20 


8 


0.01 



Construction cost estimates for improvement are as follows: 
Channel Improvement 

Excavation & Spoil Removal 

4,850 C.Y. (S~ $3.5/Cu.Yd. $ 17,000 

Concrete Lined Channel including 
Modification to Holn 1 & Holn 2 
Str's. - 800 C.Y. @$100/C.Y. 80,000 

Four (4) - 5 ft. (H) x 8 ft. (W) Box 
Culverts Including Pavement Repair 
- 1,050 C.Y. (^ $200/Cu.Yd. 210,000 



Total Alternate No. 1 Plan $307,000 

(NOTE: Holn 1 & 2 are crossover structures at Holiday Inn Motel) 

The proposed improvement of Alternate Plan No. 1 is expected to reduce the flood 
elevation immediately upstream and downstream of 13th Street to the following 
levels: 

10 Year 25 Year 100 Year 

Existing Future Existing Future Existing Future 

Upstream 72.9 72.9 73.5 73.5 74.3 74.3 

Downstream 72.3 72.3 72.7 72.7 73.6 73.6 

Alternate Plan No. 2 provides for the local government to purchase the existing 
buildings that are expected to be flooded. The gross assessed value of the buildings 
involved are as follows: 

University Inn Motel $1,481,290 

House 23,340 

Total Assessed Value $ 1 ,504,000 



92 



Only a part of the motel is expected to be flooded, and justification for purchase 
of the entire complex is doubtful. If the flooded areas alone were purchased, the 
cost of Alternate Plant No. 2 would by materially reduced. 

Alternate No. 3 plan is to raise the house and building located within the flood plain 
limits such that the floor elevation is above the expected flood stage. The 
construction cost estimate is based on a floor area of 2400 square feet for the house 
and approximately 9000 square feet for the University Inn Motel lobby building. 
Cost estimates are as follows: 

Raise House 2400 sq. ft. @ $5/sq. ft. $ 12,000 

Raise Motel 9000 Sq. ft. @ $26/sq. ft. 180,000 

Total Alternate No. 3 Plan $ 1 92,000 

Other Areas of Concern 

East Tumblin Creek flows into Colclough Pond from which it discharges through the 
drainage structure at station 85+50 on South Main Street. The existing structure is a 
24" corrugated metal pipe (CMP). Flood routing of the pond shows tthat the peak 
flows downstream from the structure are reduced to approximately 21 cfs for the 10 
year storm and 25 cfs for the 100 year storm. The pond serves as a reservoir and 
stores the flood water, with the existing 24" CMP acting as a metering device to 
discharge the flood flows at a reduced rate. Any modification to reduce the storage 
capacity of the pond will increase upstream flooding, and modification of the 
existing structure to a larger size at station 85+50, South Main Street, will increase 
the flood elevations downstream. 

The Biven's Arm Lake including the lake area to the east of U. S. 441 is a great asset 
to this stream basin. The invert elevation of the existing drainage at station 12+65, 
WilHston Road, is approximately 62.3 ft. mean sea level. The lake serves as a large 
reservoir for flood water storage. The significance of the effect is shown by the fact 
that the 100 year peak flow into the lake from Tumblin Creek is approximately 
1500 cfs and the peak discharge from the outlet structure at Wilhston Road is only 
100 cfs. The east part of the lake, between U. S. 441 and Williston Road, has a 
heavy growth of aquatic weeds and bushes which has considerable effect on the 
hydraulic gradient through this reach. Flood routing shows a maximum flood 
elevation of 65.0 ft. MSL at the WilHston Road. The flood elevation at U. S. 441 
may be 0.5 to 1.0 foot Iiigher depending on the density of aquatic growth in the 
lake. The approach to the outlet structure should be cleared and maintained to 
provide adequate hydrauhc capacity. 

Comparison of Runoff Coefficients 

Comparison of runoff coefficients based on the existing land use and the proposed 
future land use map shows that the existing runoff coefficient for the entire stream 
basin is 0.55 and 0.61 for future conditions. An increase of 0.06 will not produce 
sufficient increase in peak flow and flood elevation to warrant construction of 
detention or retention facihties in this stream basin. The largest increase in runoff 
coefficient is found in the East Tumblin branch with an increase from 0.45 to 0.59. 



93 



A summary for other locations is shown on the stream runoff analysis data table. 

D. SWEETWATER BRANCH 

Plate 1 6 shows the schematic diagram of the Sweetwater Branch stream basin. Table 
10 shows the summary data for the stream runoff analysis, and Table 11 hsts the 
existing channel hydraulics and structures including flood elevation. 

Flooding of buildings was found to occur at three locations in this stream basin. 
These are: (1) on Sweetwater Branch at S.E. 4th Street at Station 108+70, (2) on 
Rosewood Lateral at S. E. 7th Avenue at Station 143+80, and (3) on Rosewood 
Lateral at S, E. 2nd Avenue at Station 163+90. 

Flooding of buildings in each area may be alleviated by replacing the existing 
drainage structures with larger structures of greater flow capacity. 

Area(l)-S. E. 4th Street 

Flooding in this area is caused by the liigh tailwater created by the structure at the 
City's sewerage treatment plant (STP) and the high head loss caused by the structure 
at S. E. 4th Street. Alternate No. 1 Plan for this area requires the additional of a 13 
ft. X 8 ft. corrugated metal pipe arch at the STP and replacing the existing two 72" 
CMP at S. E. 4th Street with two 8 ft. (H) x 8 ft. (W) box culverts. The cost estimate 
is as follows: 

STP 

One 1 3' X 8' CMP Arch 

80 ft. @ $250/ft. $20,000 

S. E. 4th Street 

Two 8'(H) X 8'(W) Box 
Culverts including Pavement 
Replacement and structure 
removal 30,500 



Total Alternate No. 1 Plan 

for Area (1) $50,500 

Alternate No. 2 plan provides for the local government to purchase the houses 
located within the flood plain limits. The assessed value of the four (4) houses is 
$28,000. 

Alternate No. 3 plan is to raise houses located within the flood plain limits such that 
the floor elevation is above the expected flood stage. The construction cost estimate 
is based on an average floor area of 1 200 square feet per house and at a cost of 
$3/square foot for frame type houses. The cost estimate is as follows: 

Raise Houses @ S. E. 4th Street 
Four Houses @ $3/sq. ft. $ 1 4,400 



94 




CS I 

15 + 00 



PAYNES PRAIRIE 



N 


CS 
VJ84 


19 


60 


V 


I 

175 


IS 

+ 


20 


-/cs 

f 151 


+ 17 
+ 50 






CS 15 
147 + 


90 







N 




NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF 
SWEETWATER BRANCH CREEK 



SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE: 

SEPT, 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 16 



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Area (2) - S. E. 7th Avenue, Rosewood Lateral 

Flooding of buildings upstream from this structure is caused by the high head loss 
required by the structure to carry the peak flow. Alternate No. 1 plan would replace 
the existing two 48" and one 36" reinforced concrete pipe with two 72" RCP. The 
construction cost estimate is as follows: 

S. E. 7th Avenue 

Two 72" RCP Including 
Pavement Replacement and 
Structure Removal $15,500 

Total Alternate No. 1 Plan 

for Area (2) $15,500 

Alternate No. 2 plan provides for the local government to purchase the houses 
located within the flood plain limits. The assessed value of the five houses is 
$53,000. 

Alternate No. 3 plan is to raise houses located witliin the flood plain limits such that 
the floor elevation is above the expected flood stage. The construction cost estimate 
is based on an average floor area of 1200 square feet per house and at a cost of 
$3/square foot for frame type houses. The cost estimate is as follows: 

Raise houses @ S. E. 7th Avenue 

Five houses @ $3/sq. ft. $ 1 8,000 

Area 3 - S. E. 2nd Avenue, Rosewood Lateral 

The stream basin analysis also shows that flooding of the buildings upstream from 
this structure is caused by the liigh head loss through the structure. Alternate No. 1 
plan requires the replacement of the existing two 48" RCP with two 60" RCP. The 
construction cost estimate for replacement is as follows: 

S. E. 2nd Avenue 

Two 60" RCP Including 
Pavement Replacement and 
Structure Removal $23,000 

Total Alternate No. 1 Plan 

for Area (3) $23,000 

Alternate No. 2 plan provides for the local government to purchase the houses 
located within the flood plain limits. The assessed value of the two houses is 
$22,000. 

Alternate No. 3 plan is to raise houses located within flood plain limits such that the 
floor elevation is above the expected flood stage. The construction cost estimate is 
based on an average floor area of 1200 square feet per house and at a cost of 
$3/square foot for frame type houses. The cost estimate is as follows: 



106 



Raise Houses @ S. E. 2nd Avenue 
Two houses @ $3/sq. ft. $7,200 

The reduced flood elevations with implementation of Alternate No. 1 plan for Areas 
1 , 2, and 3 is shown on Table 1 2. 

Comparison of Runoff Coefficients 

The runoff coefficients for the sub-basins and the accumulative runoff coefficients 
are shown in Table 10. The runoff coefficient values were computed for the existing 
and proposed future land use conditions. A comparison of the runoff coefficient for 
the two conditions, existing and future, shows that the runoff coefficients are the 
same. Development within this stream basin has been saturated and only relatively 
small areas are not developed. A change of development, such as single family to 
commercial, and development of the undeveloped areas will not increase the peak 
rate or total volume of runoff significantly greater than the existing condition. 
Therefore, construction of retention or detention faciUties in the Sweetwater Branch 
stream basin will not reduce flood stages if the basin is developed in accordance with 
the land use plan. 

E. LAKE FOREST CREEK 

Plate 17 shows the schematic diagram of the Lake Forest Creek stream basin. Table 
13 shows the summary data for the stream runoff analysis and Table 14 shows 
existing channel hydraulics and structures, including flood elevations. Plate 1 2 shows 
the locations of all alternate plans to alleviate flooding. 

Flooding of existing buildings occurs at Area (1), the apartment complex on S. E. 
26th Terrace just south of University Avenue. 

Area ( 1 ) - S. E. 26th Terrace 

Based on the proposed future land use map, the 10 year and 100 year flood 
elevations in this area are approximately 122.4 msl and 123.4 msl respectively. The 
lowest floor elevation in the apartment houses in approximately 122.2 msl. 

Alternate No. 1 Plan is to construct a dike around the buildings and install a pump 
station to pump the interior runoff water into the existing channel during periods of 
excess rainfall. The construction cost estimate is as follows: 

Alternate No. 1 - Dike and Pump Station 

Dike Construction 
5500Cu.Yd. (^$4/Cu.Yd. 
R/W50' x 1200 $22,000 

Pump Station 

Including building, pump, 

motor, and auxiliary engine 40,000 



Total Alt. No. 1 $62,000 



107 



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CO =D '^ Q •— ,— 



0^) 




CS 36 
189 + 50 



CS 23 
234 + 60 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF 
LAKE FOREST CREEK 



SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 
CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE-- 
SEPT, 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 17 



no 









o 

CD 


CO 


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121 



Alternate No. 2 Plan includes construction of channel improvements beginning at 
station 150+00 (approximately 4000 feet downstream from apartment complex) to 
station 192+00 on the main channel and to station 190+95 (approximately 300 feet 
upstream of apartment complex) on Lateral C. Channel improvement will lower the 
flood stages for the 10 year stage to approximately 120.5 msl and the 100 year stage 
to approximately 121.7 msl at the apartment complex area. Two grade control 
structures are required for channel protection, one on Lake Forest Creek at station 
192+00 (Str. L-1) and the other on Lateral C at station 190+95 (Str. C-1). 
Structures L-1 and C-1 arc the pipe and riser type. 

The construction cost estimate is as follows: 

Excavation 

42,000 Cu. Yd. @ S 1 .50/Cu. Yd. $ 63,000 

Structures 

STR L- 1 

1 - 84" Riser W/84" Pipe 

Including Dike 24,500 

STR C- 1 

2 - 72" Risers W/72" Pipe 

Including Dike 37,500 

Side Inlets 

3 @ $5,000 ea. 15,000 

Total Alternate No. 2 w/o 

Spoil Removal $140,000 

Spoil Removal - 

50.000 C.Y. @ $2/C.Y. 100,000 

Total Alternate No. 2 W/Spoil Removal $240,000 

Alternate No. 3 plan provides for the purchase of buildings that are expected to be 
flooded by the 100 year frequency storm. The complex in which the buildings are 
located is a federal government subsidized low income housing project. Information 
obtained from the Alachua County Tax Collector's office reveals that the property 
has an assessed value of $905,390. There are fifty-seven buildings in the complex 
and five are expected to be flooded. Placing an equal value per building, the 
purchase cost for the five buildings is $79,420. 

Alternate No. 4 Plan is to raise the buildings located within the flood plain such that 
the floor elevations are above the expected flood stage. The construction cost 
estimate is based on an average floor area of 2400 square feet per building. The cost 
estimate is as follows: 

Raise building (« S. E. 26th Terrace 
Five buildings @ $5/sq. ft. $60,000 



122 



Other Areas of Concern 

Flooding of East University Avenue at Station 38+40, Lake Forest Creek, will occur 
during the 10 year frequency and greater storm. The top of the road at this crossing 
is 73.3 msl as shown on the topographic map. Tailwater elevation for the 10 year 
future condition is approximately 72.3 msl. Therefore, only 1.0 foot head is 
available before flooding occurs. The existing drainage structure is a 1 - 3'(H) x 
8'(W) box culvert. Possible solutions to alleviate flooding of the roadway are either 
major channelization downstream to Newnans Lake or raising the roadway and/or 
increasing the size of the drainage structure by replacement or addition of culverts. 

Comparison of Runoff Coefficients 

Based on existing land use, the runoff coefficient for the total stream basin at 
station 0+00 (control section 1) is 0.36. The coefficient for future proposed land use 
is 0.43. The area upstream from East University Avenue (control section 4), shows a 
minor increase of the runoff coefficient from 0.46 to 0.54. Sunnyland and Lake 
Ridge Creek areas show the lowest existing runoff coefficients: Sunnyland, existing 
0.29 and future 0.35; and Lake Ridge, existing 0.19 and future 0.26. Retention or 
detention of excess runoff for future proposed land use conditions in the stream 
basin is not required. The Sunnyland and Lake Ridge Creek areas consist of land 
predominantly owned by the State of Florida, Santa Fe Correctional Farm which 
uses the land basically for agricultural purposes. 

The land uses for areas in the stream basin were assumed to remain essentially 
unchanged. Tliis assumption results in relatively low future runoff coefficients. The 
Sunnyland and Lake Ridge Creeks join with the main channel of Lake Forest Creek 
downstream from East University Avenue, and the junction is only a short distance 
from Lake Newnan. If future land uses for Sunnyland and Lake Ridge Creek 
sub-basins are reclassified or rezoned for higher degree of development, the sub-basin 
should be re-evaluated and possibly major primary drainage facilities will be 
required. The only major factor foreseen at this time that may necessitate retention 
or detention of excess runoff is the environmental effect on Lake Newnans by 
excess runoff. 

F. CALF POND CREEK 

Plate 1 8 shows the schematic diagram of the Calf Pond Creek stream basin. Table 1 5 
shows the summary data for the stream runoff analysis and Table 16 shows the 
existing channel hydraulics and structures including flood elevations. 

No buildings or structures were found to be flooded by the 100 year flood stage 
other than overtopping of S. E. 27th Street at station 3+50. The roadway will be 
flooded to a depth of approximately one foot. The elevation of the roadway at this 
location is shown on the topographic map to be 87.1 msl. Examination of the 
contours on tlie map in this area reveals that the roadway elevation is not correct, 
but should be approximately 77.1 msl, and the roadway elevation is assumed to be 
77.1 msl. 

No alternate plan to alleviate periodic flooding of S. E. 27th Street at this location is 
considered as the street is not a primary road. 



123 



S 13 
77 + 50 





CS 2 (SE 27 ST) 
4+50 



CALF POND 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF 
CALF POND CREEK 



SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE-- 
SEPT, 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 18 



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128 



Comparison of Runoff Coefficients 

When in flood stage Calf Pond overflows into two depression basins. These are basin 
Nos. 5 and 7 of Section 14, Township 10 South, Range 20 East. The topographic 
maps show that Calf Pond is not directly connected with the basins, but field 
inspection shows a definite creek from the pond into depression basin No. 5. Field 
examination of basin No. 5 reveals that the runoff goes into an active sink hole. High 
water marks showed that sink intake capacity is relatively small. The runoff 
coefficients for the total stream basin upstream from station 4+50 (control section 
2), are 0.32 for existing conditions and 0.49 for future conditions. Based on the 100 
year 24 hour frequency storm of 9.6 inches of rainfall, the total volumes of excess 
runoff, deleting a small percentage for evapotranspiration losses, are approximately 
210 acre-feet for existing conditions and 320 acre-feet for future conditions. 

Flood plaining of depression basin No, 5 is based on the sink hole having an 
permeabihty rate of eight feet per day and surrounding areas at one foot per day. 
Flood plain elevations are as shown on the NCFRPC maps. No buildings are 
presently located within the flood channel and plain limits in the stream basin 
including nasin No. 5. The sink hole has been active for many years but whether the 
sink will remain active is unknown. Upstream retention of excess runoff is justified 
if the sink ceased to discharge runoff. A hydro-geological investigation of the sink 
should be prepared before retention of excess runoff is considered for this stream 
basin. 

G. LITTLE HATCHET CREEK 

This part of the report supplements the special study entitled "A Report on A Flood 
Plain and Water Control Program for the Headwaters of Little Hatchet, Turkey, 
Blues and Hogtown Creeks, " submitted by Sverdrup & Parcel and Associates, Inc. to 
NCFRPC in October 1973. The report presented alternate plans for primary 
drainage if the Little Hatchet Creek basin, plus adjacent areas currently not included 
in the basin, is to be developed to a density not greater than single family residential. 
The present report evaluates and determines the flood channel and flood plain 
elevations and provides alternate plans to alleviate flooding in areas where existing 
developments are flooded. The major difference between the present evaluation and 
the 1973 report is that the areas shown as undeveloped on the proposed land use 
map are assumed to remain undeveloped. 

Plate 19 shows the schematic diagram of the Little Hatchet Creek stream basin. 
Table 17 shows the summary data for the stream runoff analysis and Table 18 shows 
the existing channel hydrauhcs and structures including flood elevations. Plate 12 
shows the locations of all alternate plans to alleviate flooding. 

Flooding of existing development occurs at two areas as shown on the NCFRPC 
maps. Area (1) is the overflow of the channel between station 125+00 and station 
1 28+00, at the airport. Area (2) is the overtopping of Waldo Road at station 148+50 
for the 100 year frequency storm. The topograpliic maps do not show Brittany 
Estate Mobile Home Community (located just upstream from Waldo Road) and 
which was constructed after the aerial survey was taken. Evaluation of possible 
flooding in this area was no performed. However, field observations revealed that the 
mobile home community may be located within the flood plain limits. This area 
should be evaluated by the governing authority. 



129 



GUM ROOT 
SWAMP 



.CS I 

20 + 00 




NORTH CErjTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF 
LITTLE HATCHET CREEK 



SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 
CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE 
SEPT., 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 19 



130 



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Area ( 1 ) - Little Hatchet Creek - Station 1 25+00 to Station 1 28+00 

During construction of the airport the creek was relocated to avoid conflict with the 
runways. The creek was routed eastward around the airport, then back to the 
natural creek southeast of the airport. The bank at station 125+00 to station 
1 28+00 was left open to allow drainage into the constructed channel. During flood 
flows the floodwater will overflow onto the airport runway through the opening. 
Alternate Control Plan No. 1 is a dike tie-in to higher ground and a pipe drop 
spillway inlet with gated riser to allow interior drainage of the airport and to prevent 
flooding during high water level. Construction cost estimate is as follows: 

Dike 

300 ft. length - 
1 0,000 cu.yd. @ $3.50/cu.yd. $35,000 

Pipe Drop Spillway w/gated Riser 
24" CMP w/gated 48" Riser 5,000 



Total $40,000 

Area (2) - Little Hatchet Creek (?> Waldo Road 



The information listed in Table 18 shows that the drainage structure at Waldo Road, 
two 8'(H) X 8'(W) culverts have sufficient capacity to carry the 10 and 25 year peak 
flows (both existing and future) without flooding the road. The 100 year peak flow 
based on existing land use will not flood the road, but the 100 year peak flow based 
on future proposed land use will flood the road for a depth of approximately 0.5 
feet. No recommendation for replacement of the existing structure is made. The 
replacement of the existing drainage structure at Waldo Road may be required if the 
Brittany Mobile Home Community proves to be flooded and/or if the undeveloped 
areas are re-classified for higher density of development such as single family. 
Re-evaluation of the main Little Hatchet Creek Channel will be required if the areas 
presently classified as undeveloped based on the proposed land use map are zoned 
for any higher degree of development. If these areas are permitted to be developed 
as single family resident or higher, or if Brittany Estates is evaluated to be flooded, 
then Alternate Plan No. 2 of the October 1973 report should be considered. 

Improvement of Little Hatchet Creek as described by Alternate Plan No. 2 of the 
"Special Report" requires channel improvements from Gum Root swamp to U. S. 
441 and construction of grade control structures. If the drainage area is much 
smaller than as shown in the "Special Report" Alternate Plan No. 2 should be 
modified to reduce the size of the facility. 

Other Areas of Concern 

The upper limits of the flood channel and plain determination terminates at station 
241+80, N. E. 15th Street. Since the existing channel upstream from station 241+80 
has been altered, no evaluations were prepared for the area west of N. E. 15th 
Street. The area west of N. E. 15th Street and north of 29th Avenue, the area east of 
N. E. 15th Street including the existing golf course, and the area immediately east of 



140 



N. E. 15th Street and north of 39th Avenue to the Waldo Road have similar 
characteristics. These areas are very flat in topography, the soils are poorly drained, 
and groundwater is near or at the surface for most parts of the year. As shown on 
the maps, most of these areas are designated within the flood channel and plain. 

Comparison of Runoff Coefficient 

Table 1 7 shows the stream runoff analysis data. Comparison of runoff coefficients 
reveals that for: (1) Lateral A, the differences in coefficient for the existing and 
proposed future land use as shown on the land use map is an increase from 0.47 to 
0.54. Development in this sub-basin in accordance with the future proposal land use 
map would not significantly increase peak flows or cause flood problems 
downstream; (2) Lateral B, the increase is from 0.48 to 0.57. The increase is not 
highly significant but development in the wet areas should be restricted and the 
areas shown for recreation should remain; and (3) Little Hatchet Creek, the total 
stream basin shows an increase from 0.40 to 0.52. The greatest increase is shown for 
the sub-basin at station 147+70 which increases from 0.35 to 0.51 and the sub-basin 
at state 151+50 which increases from 0.42 to 0.55. Tliis increase is generally caused 
by the change in land use from undeveloped to planned resident development. The 
entire basin runoff coefficient, which presently ranges from 0.42 to 0.52, can be 
expected to increase if the undeveloped or unclassified areas as shown on land use 
map are re-classified to a higher degree of development. 

Development within these areas without improvement of major primary drainage 
facihties should be approached cautiously. The October, 1973 report presented the 
details, conclusions, and recommendations, including construction costs for 
alternate plans for this stream basin. 

The groundwater (shallow) table in the Little Hatchet stream basin is generally not 
more than 1-2 feet below the ground surface. During rainy seasons water stands on 
the ground surface in many parts of the upper basin reaches. The use of retention 
and/or detention basins is essentially useless as a tool for reducing peak runoff in 
this basin, since the storage volume in such basins would normally be filled with 
ground water. 

H. COST SUMMARY 

The costs of each alternate plan to alleviate flooding for each stream basin are 
summarized on Table 19. Construction costs are escalated to 1975 prices, with 
contingency, technical, dministrative, legal, and real estate costs added thereto to 
reflect the total project cost of each alternate involving construction. The costs for 
alternates involving acquisition of buildings are based on the assessed value of the 
property as estabhshed by the Alachua County Tax Assessor. Such assessed values 
were doubled to reflect the future market value plus the administrative and legal 
costs for acquisition. It is then assumed that all capital costs will be amortized over a 
forty year period at seven percent interest. Annual operation and maintenance costs 
are added to the amortized cost where appropriate. The results of this comparison 
show the total annual costs necessary to implement any of the several alternate 
water management plans based on 1 975 estimated costs. 



141 





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I. FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM 

The U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development has available a flood 
insurance program to provide flood insurance for property and home owners with 
structures located within a flood plain area. The Federal Flood Insurance Program 
was authorized by Congress under Pubhc Law 90—488, approved August 1, 1968, 
Public Law 91-152, approved December 24, 1969, and Public Law 93-234, 
approved December 31, 1973. Local communities must meet all requirements as 
stated in the act before federal assistance is available. Flood plain insurance is 
presently available for some part of the Hogtown Creek basin and flood plain data is 
based on maps produced by HUD. 

The flood insurance program does not provide an alternate plan to alleviate flooding 
but will provide financial protection to those property and home owners with 
structures located within the flood plain limits in the event of flooding. The local 
governing authority may consider subsidizing the Federal flood insurance program 
for those affected property and home owners if no alternate plans to alleviate 
flooding are implemented. 

J. USE OF IN-STREAM DETENTION DAMS 

Analysis of the stream basins showed that one natural depression along Royal Park 
Creek north of Royal Park Mall, will provide sufficient detention to reduce flooding 
by a significant amount. This area is described in Part B of the section on Hogtown 
Creek. There are no other natural detention areas in the study area that will provide 
sufficient flood water storage to reduce flooding appreciably. 

Artificial detention, which may be created by construction of a dam in the stream, 
will provide reduction in flood stages to downstream reaches of the stream if 
sufficient storage is available. It has been shown that the differences between flood 
stages for the existing and future land use condition is generally less than one foot 
for all streams in the study area. Therefore, detention dams can not be justified to 
reduce peak flows. As an example, one of the most promising detention basins is 
located on Possum Creek just upstream from N. W. 34th Street. The size of dam 
required to produce a significant reduction of flood stage downstream (3-4 feet 
below existing conditions) would require a water depth upstream of the dam of 
approximately 20 feet. The upstn>am pool would flood a large area for periods of up 
to ten days thereby causing sign ficant environmental damage to the flooded area. 
The relative small flood reduct on value and the considerable construction cost, 
excluding real estate required 3r the flood pool, makes the construction of 
detention dams in the stream ba. i i unfeasible, 

K. MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 

The field observations and sun ' , s of existing drainage channels and structures show 
that an improved maintenance pivjgram is needed. Many existing culverts were found 
to be partially to fully filled with sand and silt. Many reaches of existing drainage 
channel are overgrown with brushes and trees thereby increasing the resistance to 
flood water flow. Such adverse conditions will cause a pronounced increase in 
hydrauhc gradient and head loss through the existing structure, and flood stages will 
be higher than those determined in this report. An operation and maintenance 
program to maintain channels and structures is recommended to be included as an 
integral part of any water management program. 



147 



L. CONTINUAL MONITORING PROGRAM OF STREAM BASINS 

The basic engineering tools utilized by the engineers in evaluation of the stream 
basins have been proven by others, including governmental agencies, to produce 
reliable results v^dthin the field of hydrology and hydraulics. However, the results of 
the computer program are only as rehable as the basic input data. Recorded data 
showing historical flood stages and flows in the study area are sparse. Some 
information was obtained by interviewing old-time residents, but memories are not 
alway rehable. As a result the engineers found it necessary to make certain 
assumptions in lieu of actual observations. It is recommended that a water quantity 
and quality monitoring program be initiated to supplement the historical data being 
collected by the U. S. Geological Survey. Such data should be sufficient to detect 
any significant differences between the report findings and actual conditions. 

M PRIORITY LIST 

Twelve areas were identified where flooding of existing developments will occur. 
Alternate plans to alleviate flooding in each of these areas are presented in the 
report. Priority for implementation of the recommended alternate to alleviate flood 
in each area is based upon: (1) historical frequency of flooding within those areas 
located in the flood plain, with the more frequently flooded areas receiving higher 
priority; (2) difficulty in applying temporary relief in the event of flooding prior to 
implementation of a water management plan; and, (3) those areas expected to 
receive highest flood stages. The priority list is as follows: 

Priority No, Stream Basin and Area No. 



Sweetwater Branch 

Area Nos. 1 , 2 & 3 and 

Hogtown Creek Area Nos. 1 , 2, & 3 

Lake Forest Creek Area No, 1 and 
Hogtown Creek Area Nos. 4, 5, & 6 

TumbUn Creek Area No. 1 and 
Little Hatchet Creek Area No. 1 



148 



SECTION 8 
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 



A. INTRODUCTION 

A hydrologjc cycle began billions of years ago as a cooling of the molten earth 
produced water vapor to condense and fall. The conservation of energy and motion 
governed by gravity, sunlight and topography caused the water received by the earth 
to flow along paths of least resistance. Some of this water slowly percolated into the 
soil dissolving minerals and the rest remained at the surface. Flowing surface waters 
have carved, dissolved and scoured the face of the earth since the first rivers were 
born and they will continue to do so as long as topography offers relief and basins to 
receive water flowing by the effect of gravity on its mass. The sun will evaporate 
water only at the surface of the earth to maintain the hydrologic cycle. Thus, the 
cycle insures an intermittent or constant flow through etched channels wliich 
inherently accommodate the regular peak discharge of a watershed. Periodic higher 
peak discharges overflow the banks of the defined channel inundating and eroding 
the riparian plain supporting vegetation and habitats necessarily adapted to this 
dynamic situation. This process of reforming the earth's surface will continue for the 
duration of the hydrologic cycle. The hydrologic cycle is presented on Plate 20. 

The entire effort of this report is for the estabhshment of the net result of the 
hydrologic cycle's effect on the area including geology, topography, vegetation and 
wildhfe with human development. Numerous natural depressions in this region (over 
1 200) have been delegated the role of receiving surface waters and have established 
biotic communities related to inflow, percolation, discharge and evapotranspiration 
of the basin. Each depression is unique and must be analyzed individually to 
determine the effects of watershed modification upon basin evolution. The flood 
plain and water management program combined with an environmental assessment 
provides a dynamic approach for planners to establish land use plans for the region. 
Alternates for implementing watershed modification in the study area consist of any 
one or combination of the following: (1) No construction and flood plain 
dehneation; (2) channel modification; (3) dike and pump systems; (4) detention; 
and, (5) retention. 

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS OF INDIVIDUAL ALTERNATES 

B. NO CONSTRUCTION 

The no construction alternate calls for the flood channels and plains to be 
established for given conditions. Houses in the flood plain should be elevated above 
flood level to provide some flood protection and allow the channel to develop 
naturally. The forces of nature determines the channel in its respective flood plain. 
The channel determined by the slope, path and rate of flow is reformed by continual 
erosion and sedimentation of the bottom and banks in an effort to accommodate 
the everchanging runoff. Riparian vegetation and existing habitats remain subjected 
to flooding, erosion and sedimentation at periodic intervals. However, grade is 
controlled by roots and trees crossing the stream and by geological features. Water 



149 







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quality for this type of channel is established by the quahty of storm water runoff 
minus nutrients withdrawn and stored by the vegetation along the channel banks. 
The natural beauty of these channels is aesthetically pleasing to man as they remain 
functional hfe support systems for the associated biotic community. The 
photographs on Plate 21 exhibit natural channels representing the "No Construction 
Alternate." 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND ADVERSE EFFECTS 

The no construction alternate will cause the basin to be modified at a natural rate 
conforming to rainfall and development. The process of erosion will continue to 
increase as development of the watershed occurs, with the pursuant runoff 
demanding a larger channel to carry the flow. Deposition of sediments will develop 
demanding a larger channel to carry the flow. Deposition of sediments will develop 
in flat areas of the channel and in small pools in the flood plain. Periodic flooding 
will occur since the flow will not be retained within definite channel banks. The 
flora and fauna are naturally selected for this flood plain and can be expected to 
adapt or succumb to the effects of increased flooding. Wilderness, wetland, and 
microcUmate in the flood plain will be preserved. Corridors for feeding wildlife will 
be maintained if the channels are left in their existing state. Forestry and agriculture 
in the flood plain areas should not be increasingly endangered by flood waters. 
Water quahty will be dependent on the ability of the riparian vegetation to 
assimilate the waste of new development trends. Hunting, fisliing, boating, 
swimming, camping and hiking, picnicking and other recreational activities will be 
able to continue without any detrimental effect to the aesthetics of the recreation 
area. It is not anticipated that parks, aesthetics and human interest points will be 
endangered where the no construction alternate is selected and they may in fact be 
enhanced by the guaranty of flood plains for managed pubUc use. However, 
residential, commercial and industrial land use will suffer property damage within 
the flood plain periodically. Transportation patterns may be effected by flood 
waters during peak flows but minimal impediment is anticipated. Population density 
in the flood plain can be limited by a flood plain ordinance restricting property 
owner's method of developing their land. 

ENVIRONMENTAL COST BENEFIT 

The cost to the community of a flood plain that increases with development of the 
watershed is the minor loss of biological communities to increased flood elevations. 
The expense for the removal of vacated structures or elevating of structures to 
remain will become necessary. The no construction alternative will benefit the 
community by providing partial treatment of storm water effluent as nutrients are 
assimilated by the biological community. Protection of the flood plain from 
construction will allow the remaining wildhfe population of the area to be 
maintained. The aesthetics of a natural stream system will enhance the property 
values of flood plain residents. The no construction alternative allows storm water 
channels to be self-maintained except for the clearing of sediments and debris at 
existing culverts. 

SHORT TERM USE AND LONG TERM PRODUCTIVITY 

Natural systems, such as those that would be preserved under a no construction 
policy, develop over many years and are dependent on relatively stable conditions. 

151 




^ 





RIPARIAN VEGETATION AND EXISTING HABITATS 
REMAIN SUBJECTED TO FLOODING 




GRADE IS CONTROLLED BY ROOTS AND 
TREES CROSSING THE STREAM 



The Channel determined by slope, 
path and rate of flow is reformed 
by continual erosion and sedi- 
mentation. . . . 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



NATURAL CHANNELS 



SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE 

SEPT, 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 2 1 



152 



Water quantity and quality are key factors for the maintenance of natural systems 
since water acts as the life support system for the aquatic and adjacent communities. 
Any short term use of this Ufe support system which drastically affects the water 
quaUty or quantity will necessarily alter the long term productivity of the biotic 
community. The associated physical and aesthetic values of the area will be 
dependent on the management of the watershed within the carrying capacity of the 
basin. Wise policies will insure that the long term productivity of streams and lakes 
will be self-maintained and at the same time allow for a corridor to be protected for 
and used by vegetation, wildlife and recreation. 

COMMITMENTS OF RESOURCES 

The flood plain estabhshed by a no construction poUcy may be used for agricultural 
and recreation purposes but new development should not be allowed and increases 
in the size of structures within the flood plain should be hmited. 

C. CHANNELIZATION 

Channelization is not a water program objective but an engineering measure with the 
objective of drainage (for the reclamation of wetlands by lowering the level of the 
water table), flood control (for lowering flood stages by increasing the capacity of 
the stream channels), and erosion control (by the substitution of artificially eroded 
channels for eroding natural channels). This process requires the removal of existing 
vegetation and the replacement of meandering natural streams by systems of straight 
ditches. Although hydraulically efficient by design, a new channel will return to its 
original level and meandering course without constant maintenance. Water quality is 
dependent upon the maintenance of the readily eroded banks and sediment deposits 
while proper maintenance discourages the estabhshment of an aquatic community. 
The photographs on Plate 22 depict existing channelization in the project area. A 
municipaUty which develops adjacent to a channel hmits the capabihty of expanding 
each. 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND ADVERSE EFFECTS 

The act of channehzation is effectively a step function appUed to the process of 
erosion wherein man is the agent. Initially the corridor is eliminated and the 
interface of the aquatic environment with the terrestrial environment is lost to 
wildlife. The channel riglit-of-way is denuded of trees and shrubs, aquatic plants and 
other existing vegetation to be replaced by selected grasses on the new channel 
banks. Soils removed by the process of channelization are generally deposited along 
the banks of the new channel to form a spoil and eliminate the cost of further 
removal. The generally poor maintenance afforded the spoils and steep banks cause 
the erosion of the soil to return to the channel where it is deposited downstream. 
Hence, water quaUty becomes poor during periods of peak flow and suspended 
solids are carried to the basin bottom. The resulting general lowering of the water 
table. The microchmate is generally effected by the reduction of water surface area. 
Downstream recreation is devalued by sediment discharged from the dug channels. 
However, the population density of the area which was once a flood plain will 
generally increase as a result of the sense of security offered by the flood control 
channel. Floods of the size the channel is designed for are generally eUminated 
providing a false sense of security from flood hazard of storms larger than design or 
of channels diminished in size due to sedimentation. Transportation networks and 
structures are protected from flooding for a given storm but are subject to flooding 
by a storm greater than designed conditions. Acceleration of eutrophication of the 
channel receiving waters can be expected due to the provision for an increase in 



153 




Water quality is dependent upon maintenance of the readily 
eroded banks and sediment deposits. However, proper main- 
tenance discourages the establishment of an essential aquatic community. 




Although hydraulically efficient by design, a new channel 
will return to its original level and meandering course 
without constant maintenance. 



Channelization is ... an engineering 
measure with the objective of drainage, 
flood control, and erosion control. 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



EXISTING CHANNELIZATION 



SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE 

SEPT. 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 2 2 



154 



development of the watershed. The aesthetics of a straight bearing channel leaves 
something to be desired when compared to the swamp forest it has replaced. 
Without constant maintenance, the channel will attempt to return to a natural state 
in harmony with the environment and re-establish the flood plain. 

ENVIRONMENTAL COST AND BENEFIT 

Maintenance of erosion and sedimentation damages must be added to the cost of the 
channeHzation project. Spoil deposited on site increases the cost of maintenance due 
to its availabihty as erodible material. If the spoil is used to increase the size of the 
channel, its top must be protected from the erosion of motor vehicle traffic paths 
from minibikes, trail bikes, dune buggies, etc. Paths such as these can allow for the 
discharge of water at flood conditions to the other side of the spoil causing the rapid 
erosion of the area and a general failure of the flood control protection system. 
Major rezoning in the channel watershed will develop an increase in runoff for the 
design storm requiring a larger channel cross-section to carry the flow. Hence, a 
costly channel modification program would have to be estabhshed. Water tables 
reduced by channel construction are costly to the biological community, and stream 
water quality is necessarily reduced due to the removal of aquatic vegetation and the 
pursuant loss of nutrient uptake. An annual loss to the recreational value of 
receiving waters will result from sediment deposits and an increase in the rate of 
eutrophi cation. 

Benefits realized by channel improvements include Umiting the size of the flood plan 
and flood channel, lowering the water table for development and reduction in the 
flood hazard and loss of property for the design storm. 

SHORT TERM USE AND LONG TERM PRODUCTIVITY 

Ultimate growth of the community will require complete channel stabilization and 
maintenance program to maximize the efficiency of the waterway. However, the 
growth of the area eventually becomes limited to the channel's capacity to provide 
adequate flood water removal. Receiving water quality and aesthetics will be 
generally reduced more rapidly with a channehzation for development program. 

COMMITMENTS OF RESOURCES 

Drainage of wetlands results in irretrievable losses of certain biological communities. 
Channels are designed to be void of sediments and vegetation which restrict water 
flow, thus, a long term commitment must be established to control sediments and 
the growth of vegetation and insects in the channel. Receiving bodies of water are 
committed to the pollution loads of storm runoff channels due to loss of nutrient 
uptake by associated aquatic vegetation. A good maintenance program is just as 
necessary as proper design and construction if the channel is to function adequately 
at the time of the design storm. The receiving waters will also require maintenance if 
the quality of life is to be preserved. 

D. DIKE AND PUMP FACILITIES 

Dikes or embankments constructed of earth or other suitable materials may be 
utihzed to protect lands against overflow or flooding from streams and lakes. 
Facilities for discharge of runoff from protected areas must be provided at all stages 
of flow unless adequate storage is made available. When prolonged flood stages 
prevent gravity outflow, the runoff from protected areas must be accumulated and 
stored temporarily in low areas behind the dikes and removed continuously by 



155 



pumps. The dikes are generally established and maintained void of vegetation except 
for grasses but this is not a necessary condition. The effected channel can remain 
self-determined with no change in water quality. Plate 23 presents dike facilities 
presently used in the area. 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND ADVERSE EFFECTS 

The construction right-of-way for the dike is often denuded of vegetation. Sloped 
banks of the dike are eroded unless protected by vegetation. The dikes are intended 
to protect the community from floods, but unless a maintenance program is 
established to insure that the top of the dike is not worn down by traffic, the 
structure may serve no purpose. When the big storm comes, failure could occur as 
water further erodes well travelled sectors. Erosion of the banks must be expected 
unless maintained with a good cover of vegetation. Flora on either side of the dike 
should not be effected by its construction, however, drastic changes in soil cover is 
detrimental vegetation. Although there is some loss of desirable ground cover, fauna 
should readily adapt to the new structure. Dikes generally lack aesthetic value and 
can prohibit or enhance scenic views and vistas, while open space quaUties are 
preserved for the entrapped flood plain. Cultural status of adjacent residents is 
generally reduced through loss of property value accountable to aesthetic sacrifice. 
Dikes provide a false sense of security and hence population density within the 
original flood plain may increase. Structures and transportation networks can be 
protected from the design storm, but damage by a storm of greater magnitude may 
result. Proper location of the dike need not destroy corridors valuable to wildlife of 
the area. The dike provides an opportunity for the watershed to develop within the 
limits of the design flood plain. Storm runoff can be expected to contribute to the 
acceleration of eutrophication of receiving waters, and brush encroachment can be 
anticipated on the surface of the dike, but generally, the dike is a structure of least 
environmental impact. 

ENVIRONMENTAL COST AND BENEFIT 

There is some loss of wildlife habitat in the construction of a dike. Operation and 
maintenance of the dike and pump facihty and enforcement of the top level must be 
considered as costs. Any future expansion of the watershed due to rezoning or 
drainage of wetlands will require the modification of the dike and pump facility 
accordingly. The loss of scenic views, the degradation of aesthetics and the possility 
of failure should be considered as environmental costs. 

The anticipated benefit received from the dike and pump facility is the reduction of 
the flood plain and protection fro the flood hazard of property loss. A major benefit 
is that large open space areas can be preserved for the natural treatment of polluted 
storm waters, the enhancement of wildUfe productivity and the establishment of 
recreation areas. 

SHORT TERM USE AND LONG TERM PRODUCTIVITY 

The dike is viewed as the least detrimental structure for environmental quality md 
flood protection. Rezoning of the watershed may require an increase in the size of 
the structure but should not involve relocation or major expansion. Large dikes m.iy 
prove some value as a route for bicycles or hiking under proper maintenam ■ 
conditions. 



156 




157 



D 



|] COMMITMENT OF RESOURCES 



I 
1 
I 
I 
I 
1 
I 



A dike establishes the flood plain for a given storm and hence the community is 
committed to this limit. Thus, rezoning necessitates re-evaluation of the dike 
structure. Dikes may have the least environmental effect of all the construction 
alternatives, bearing in mind the loss of aesthetic values once belonging to adjacent 
property owners. As with all flood control structures designed for a given storm, 
dikes offer a false sense of security from major floods resulting from storms which 
exceed design criteria. 

DETENTION 

Detention areas serve to regulate the flow of storm runoff. The quaUty of water 
discharged from flood detention areas is generally improved with an increase in the 
period of detention. Vegetation behind the structure not adapted in high water 
elevations may be lost due to flooding to higher levels than normal. The erodability 
of the channel from discharge rate changes fro the results of a surge effect to that of 
a duration effect. However, the natural character of the channel may be basically 
preserved. Detention areas may be natural or constructed (See Plate 24). 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND ADVERSE EFFECTS 

With a detention structure, the rate of storm water runoff is limited to an 
established level while the duration of the discharge is increased, but flooding due to 
the peak discharge is reduced. Water management program design criteria regulate 
the maximum rate of discharge from a detention structure. However, short 
detention periods may offset the time at which the volume of flow will reach the 
recieving basin, possibly increasing this peak flow at stream junctions. The aesthetics 
of the stream channel need not be destroyed by the construction of a detention 
basin. One report^') on detention basins in the Gainesville area indicates that a 
reduction in pollution levels from that of domestic sewage to 70% removal of 
suspended solids, 40% removal of BOC, 30% removal of nutrients, may be reahzed 
with 5 hours detention. A reduction in the eutrophication rate of the receiving 
waters may be anticipated from detention of storm water runoff. Consideration of 
corridor destruction should be made in determining detention structure locations in 
the main stream channel. Upstream fauna and flora may be destroyed by water 
levels behind the structure and by clearing required for construction of the 
detention basin. 

ENVIRONMENTAL COST AND BENEFITS 

Maintenance requiring the removal of sediment and debris from detention basins is 
necessary. Any expansion of the water shed or rezoning of the watershed may 
require replacement or renovation of the detention structure. Failure of a detention 
structure could be damaging to both man and wildlife, as well as the stream channel. 



I ^^"A Survey of Available Information Describing Expected Constituents in Urban Surface 

^ Runoff; With Special Emphasis on the Gainesville Area." By Roy Burke, III, an occa- 

sional paper prepared for Florida Defenders of the Environment, Inc., June, 1971. 

I 



I 



158 




A NATURAL DETENTION AREA 

The quality of water discharged from flood detention areas 
is generally improved. 



m 




A CONSTRUCTED DETENTION AREA 

The natural character of the channel may be basically 
preserved. 



Detention areas serve to regulate 
the flow of storm runoff. 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



DETENTION AREAS 



SVERDRUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 
CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE: 
SEPT, 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 24 



159 



A benefit of enhancement of water quality may be realized, and a reduction of the 
downstream flood plain is gained by the sacrifice of upstream detention basin areas. 
The aesthetics of a detention structure may be more satisfactory than that of other 
flood control structures. 

SHORT TERM USE AND LONG TERM PRODUCTIVITY 

Adequate detention which improves the quahty of the water discharged from a 
detention structure enhances downstream recreation. Upstream development will 
necessarily be limited to the capacity of the structure to discharge flow at the 
natural rate. 

COMMITMENT OF RESOURCES 

The swamp forest may be preserved by calculated location of detention basins, 
offsetting the need for a channehzation program. However, downstream flood plains 
may become difficult to preserve as rezoning requires modification of the detention 
basins. 

RETENTION BASINS 

Retention basins are natural or manmade depressions which serve to receive a 
portion of the runoff, entrapping the flow for percolation or evaporation. The 
remaining runoff is discharged to the receiving stream. For the purposes of this 
study, depressions are classified as well drained, poorly drained, or as being ponded 
depending upon associated vegetation. Solution caverns also fall into the broad 
classification of retention basins and were assessed separately. Plate 25 represents 
natural and manmade retention areas. 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND ADVERSE EFFECTS 

Retention basins receive surface waters and provide recharge to underlying aquifers 
as well as evapotranspiration effecting the microcHmate. A basin will flood according 
to its characteristics of percolation, discharge and volume of storage. Increased land 
use of the watershed accelerates the deposition of sediments in the basin reducing 
the rate of percolation. Associated flora and fauna are necessarily adapted to 
fluctuating water levels within a reasonable degree of latitude. Some natural basins 
are productive biological communities in their natural state, but manmade basins 
generally become eutrophic ponds in a short period of time. Natural retention basins 
are often used for recreation such as hunting, fishing, boating, swimming, camping 
and hiking, picnicking. But as runoff with developed land use increases, quaUty of 
the basin decreases. Increasing flood elevations with land use development may 
result on the encroachment of ground water into septic tanks and drain fields. The 
stagnate water of these basins provides breeding grounds for mosquitos and 
pestulant aquatic plants. 



160 



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NATURAL RETENTION 

Associated flora and fauna are necessarily adapted to 
fluctuating v;ater levels. 







MANMADE RETENTION 

..become eutrophic ponds in a short period of time, 



Retention basins ... serve to receive 
a portion of the runoff, entrapping 
the flow for percolation or evaporation, 



161 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 
REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



RETENTION AREAS 



SVERORUP a PARCEL AND ASSOCIATES, INC. 
CONSULTING ENGINEERS 
GAINESVILLE, FLA. 



DATE: 
SEPT, 1974 



PROJECT NO. 
4194 



PLATE 25 



COST BENEFIT 

Densely populated retention basin watersheds must be maintained and even fenced 
for the health and safety of the community. Expansion of such a basin to receive 
flow from additional development in the watershed or from another watershed may 
involve considerable cost. Retention basins can provide recharge to the aquifers and 
to the groundwater table as well as serving as pollution control mechanisms in 
stream basin watersheds. 

SHORT TERM USE AND LONG TERM PRODUCTIVITY 

Highly developed retention basin watersheds can anticipate early eutrophication of 
the receiving waters. Pathogens may find their way to the setthng ponds developing 
a health and safety menace. Periodic maintenance may become necessary as 
community debris finds its way to the basin bottom. The development of the 
watershed is limited to the ability of the retention basin to effectively handle storm 
water runoff. 

COMMITMENT OF RESOURCES 

Once retention basin watersheds are established, the depressions become settUng 
basins for storm water runoff subjected to the character of man's waste. Presently 
Newnan's Lake, Bivens Arm, Lake Kanapaha and Haile Sink, in addition to Paynes 
Prairie act as natural retention basins to receie storm water discharge from the 
Gainesville Metropolitan area. As development of these separate watersheds 
increases, the quantity of runoff received by the basins increases and the quality of 
the storm water decreases. Storm water runoff has effectively been compared to the 
level of raw sewage and effluent of secondary and treated sewage. The amount of 
suspended sohds concentrated in storm water runoff usually exceeds that of raw 
domestic sewage. BOD concentration in storm runoff is equivalent to secondary 
treatment of domestic sewage. Urban storm drainage constitutes an important 
source of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous in addition to toxic materials 
which should not be overlooked. Most bacteria in storm water runoff do not 
originate from human sources, but pathogenic organisms have been found in runoff 
water. All of the oil products which find their way to the pavement and roadsides 
should be expected to appear in urban drainage. It must be reahzed that any and all 
of our waste products, no matter how insignificant, find their way to retention 
basins under the influence of the force of storm water. 

The recreation lakes of the study area can not be expected to successfully treat 
increasing rates of pollution from storm water runoff by their self-contained 
biological communities. Lakes serve the purpose of settUng ponds for our streams, 
eventually filling up to become swamps and then meadows. This process is 
accelerated by the increase in the rate of pollutants carried to these water bodies by 
storm water runoff. All of these lakes are hypereutrophic presently-the final stage 
of lake productivity before senescence (when a lake becomes a swamp). Newnan's 
Lake is valued by the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission at $4 million. It 
cannot take major increases in nutrient loadings and suspended solids and BOD, 
which development of the watershed of Newnan's Lake would bring without control 
of storm water quality. Lake Kanapaha is being prepared as a recreation area for the 
community. At the same time, it is receiving increasing storm water loads. If the 
regional community is to establish and maintain the aesthetic, recreational and 

162 



environmental quality of these basins, it must establish a water quahty program to 
coincide with the water management program. Storm water runoff quality can be 
improved through onsite detention, retention and preservation of natural channels 
and prairies. Channel improvements will necessitate costly operation and 
maintenance programs if the aesthetic value of the Gainesville area is to be 
preserved. 



163 



1 





SECTION 9 
ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND PROJECT FUNDING 



A. ADMINISTRATIVE 

The implementation of a water management and flood control plan involves the 
compUance with specific administrative procedures. Initially, one of the alternate 
plans must be selected as the most feasible and in the best interest of the 
community, and a method for funding the plan adopted. A review of the proposed 
plan should be undertaken by the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council. 
Public hearings should be conducted to determine community opinion of the 
proposed project before a final decision is made regarding implementation of the 
selected water management plan. At this time, the State of Florida Board of 
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund should be solicited to determine what 
permits from the State of Florida must be obtained. Preliminary approval may be 
necessary from the Department of Natural Resources, the Florida Game and Fresh 
Water Fish Commission, the Department of Pollution Control, and the Board of 
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund. 

Upon receipt of preliminary approval required by any state agencies, project funding 
and construction plans should be provided for. Construction plans must be approved 
by the City and County Engineer and Planning and Zoning Departments. The 
County Forester must approve the removal of any trees required by construction. 

A permit from the Department of Transportation must be obtained through the 
local maintenance office for any construction involving state road right-of-ways. 
Similarly, a permit from concerned railroads will be necessary before construction in 
a railroad riglit-of-way can take place. 

Finally, construction plans must be approved by any state or federal agency which 
requires a permit. Maintenance of close contact with all concerned agencies will 
expedite implementation of the proposed water management program. 

B. PROJECT FUNDING 

(1) General 

The construction and operation of channel modifications, dike and pump systems, 
or other water management facihties will necessitate the commitment of funds for a 
capital improvement program. Acquisition of property in the flood plain area will 
also require considerable money, as would the construction of retention or 
detention facihties. 

These paragraphs describe briefly the methods available to the City and County for 
funding a water management program. 



164 



(2) General Obligation Bonds 

General obligation bonds are supported by an ad valorem tax on privately owned 
real property and must be approved by referendum prior to issuance. The area 
included in the tax district and the limit of millage to be applied againt the tax base 
must also be defined in advance. Many such bond issues have been successful in 
Florida where special taxing districts have been created for water control of 
agricultural lands. However, it is unlikely that a referendum in Metropohtan 
Gainesville for a water management program would pass, since most of the residents 
in an urban area would realize no direct benefits from the program. 

(3) Revenue Bonds 

Financing of major capital improvement programs by the issuance and sale of 
revenue bonds has become common practice among governmental agencies. The 
successful sale of such bonds is contingent upon the availability of sufficient income 
to meet annual bond principal and interest payments and to accrue a reserve fund. A 
reliable source of income would be pledged to retire the indebtedness. One possible 
method for supplementing such pledged income could be developed by levying an 
"impact fee" against the property served by the capital improvement program. As 
the first step, the City and County would determine what percentage of the total 
project cost would be collected from the property to be served. As future 
development occurs, each developer would then pay the City of County an impact 
fee based on the number of acres, the number of building units, or other unit of 
measure in the development. This arrangement would exempt all presently 
developed land in the service area, and it is likely that some of the remaining 
undeveloped land would not be developed, thus preventing the collection of the 
impact fee from such acreage. The amount of impact fees collected would, 
therefore, supplement the income pledged to service the revenue bonds by 
considerably less than 100%. 

A referendum would not be required to issue revenue bonds. 

(4) Assessment Bonds 

Assessment bonds may also be issued and sold to finance drainage and flood control 
projects in Alachua County. The City and the County would be required to create 
and establish a special tax service district and to levy an assessment against all 
property within the district. Equal annual payments on the principal amount and 
interest on the unpaid balance would be paid by each property owner so assessed, 
and such income would then be used to meet the debt service on the assessment 
bonds. Should the total amount of the assessments be less than the total project 
cost, it would be necessary for the City and/or the County to pledge otiier income 
to retire the bonds. 

(5) Pay-As- You-Go 

It is possible to fund the project by means of appropriations in the City's and 
County's annual budgets, possibly supplemented by funds obtained from impact fee 
collections. It is obvious that a capital improvement program of any magnitude 
could not be completed under this method in a short time period, but, rather, would 
require piecemeal construction over a period of several years. 



165 



SUMMARY 

In addition to the environmental and legal aspects, the method of project funding 
must be considered during selection of the water management program. Several 
funding methods, or combinations thereof, are possible, but it is advisable to confer 
with the City's and County's fiscal agents, prior to crystallizing the method of 
funding the project. Further, it may be possible to construct the project in phases, a 
technique which can serve to defer some of the project cost. Consultation with the 
design engineer will be required to establish the feasibility of phase construction. 

Finally, it must be recognized that areas other than the present study area will hkely 
require similar treatment. The pattern established to solve the problems described in 
this report may set a precedence for the solution of problems in other areas. 



166 



SECTION 10 
LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS 



A. GENERAL 

There appear to be two areas of legal interest which should be considered prior to 
adopting any of the alternate water management plans described in Section 7. The 
first area which should be explored deals with the legal authority to initiate a water 
management program. The second pertains to legal problems which may arise from 
the zoning of flood plain areas. 

A brief discussion of the above legal considerations is given in this Section to 
emphsize the problems which may arise as a result of program implementation. 

B. LEGAL AUTHORITY FOR A WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 

(1) Alachua County 

Alachua County has in effect certain legislative authorization which will permit the 
County Commission to proceed with a water management plan. Section 125.01 
"Power and Duties" of Chapter 125, Florida Statutes, hsts the following powers to 
carry on county government: 

"(j) Establish and administer programs of flood and beach 

erosion control and drainage ;" 

"(p) Enter into agreements with other governmental agencies within or 
outside the boundaries of the county for joint performance, or 
performance by one unit in behalf of the other, of any of either 
agency's authorized functions;" 

"(q) Establish, special purpose districts for any part or all of the 

unincorporated area of the county, within wliich may be 

provided drainage, and other essential facihties and services 

from funds derived from service charges, special assessments, or 
taxes within such district only." 

"(r) Levy and collect taxes and special assessments, borrow and expend 
money, issue bonds, revenue certificates, and other obUgations of 
indebtedness, which power shall be exercised in such manner, and 
subject to such limitations, as may be provided by general law;" 

Section 2 of Chapter 65-1234, Laws of Florida, 1965, states in part: 



167 



"The board of county commissioners of Alachua County is authorized to 
provide and estabhsh the following services and improvements within 

Alachua County: , drainage and flood control projects, ; 

and in connection with any of said services or projects to create and 
estabhsh special tax service districts." 

House Bill 2041, Laws of Florida, 1973, wliich created the Alachua County PubUc 
Facihties Authority, states in part: 

"Section 4, General Powers. The Authority is hereby authorized and 

empowered: ; (5) To acquire, construct, improve, equip, furnish 

and operate any county capital project ; (7) To borrow money and 

issue negotiable bonds, and to provide for the rights of the holders 
thereof, and to secure the payment of said bonds by a pledge of all or any 
portion of the revenues and other monies legally available therefor, 



(2) City of Gainesville 

The Charter of the City of Gainesville does not appear to address specifically the 
subject of water management programs. However, Section H states: 

"The enumeration of particular powers in this Charter shall not be 
deemed or held to be exclusive, but in addition to the powers enumerated 
herein, implied hereby, or appropriate to the exercise thereof. The said 
city shall have and may exercise all other powers which are now, or may 
hereafter be, possessed or enjoyed by cities under the Constitution and 
general laws of this state, and all the powers of the city, whether 
expressed or imphed, shall be exercised and embraced in the manner 
prescribed in this Chapter, or when not so prescribed, then in such manner 
as may be provided by ordinance or resolution of the commission. (Ch, 
12760, Subsection 1 1, Special Acts 1927)" 

It would therefore appear that both the City and the County have been granted 
adequate legal authority to plan, finance, construct and operate a water management 
program. Authority is also granted to fund the program by one or a combination of 
the following methods: (1) issuance and sale of revenue bonds; (2) issuance and sale 
of assessment bonds; or, (3) funds appropriated in the annual operating budget of 
either governing body. 

LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS PERTAINING TO FLOOD PLAIN 
ZONING AND WATER MANAGEMENT 

The adoption of an effective flood plain ordinance will place restrictions on the 
development of property lying within the flood channel and flood plain Umits. Such 
restrictions are necessary in the pubhc interest to prevent the construction of homes 
or other occupied buildings which will be damaged by flood waters. However, the 
value of property so zoned may be reduced. The question then arises as to whether 
the property owners should be reimbursed for such loss of value, and, if so, by 
whom. 



168 



The question is further compHcated by the fact that all major stream basins in the 
study area have been partially developed. This development has increased the flood 
plain area over that required by the stream in its original state, and such 
development has pre-empted a significant portion of the stream's carrying capacity. 
Should, then, the flood plain limits be established to accommodate the present 
development level only, or should the limits be increased to provide for higher flood 
levels which will result from future development in the stream drainage basin? 

If the flood plain limits are set to meet the present degree of basin development, the 
excess of runoff from additional development in the basin must be managed by 
means of retention or detention facilities. Such facihties may be constructed either 
in-stream or at the development site with an initial expenditure of land and capital 
costs as well as continued operational costs. Should such costs be borne entirely by 
private interests who wish to develop additional land in the basin? Or, should all 
property within the basin bear the cost of the water management program, acting 
through a public agency? 

Answers to these questions should be resolved either by appropriate legislation or by 
the courts. 



16^) 



SECTION 1 1 
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 



A. GENERAL 

Statement of Condition 

The 1 35 square mile HUD area studied typifies a Karst topography by virtue of the 
underlying dense and highly jointed hmestone, the receipt of sUghtly more than 52 
inches of rainfall annually and the excellent subterranean drainage in the central, 
nortliwest, southwest and southeast areas. The northeast area is a typical wetland 
underlain with an impervious organic hardpan. 

Excess stormwater in the area of Karst topography is eliminated primarily by 
discharge from over 1200 significant depression basins to the Floridan aquifer. 
Several natural channels have developed in major watersheds to supply depressions 
or sink holes with surface water runoff. The wetland areas experience 
evapotranspiration and surface runoff for removal of stormwater part of the year, 
allowing for semi-annual inundation. 

Land use in the area has produced problems of periodic flooding to developed 
sectors of the community by reducing infiltration capabihties and increasing the 
percentage of stormwater discharged in the basins. Water quality of the runoff 
deteriorates with urbanization, endangering the stability of the aquatic communities 
associated with the receiving waters. Simultaneously the carrying capacity of the 
natural channels has been reached in several areas, developing flood plains which 
encompass many structures. 

Random channehzation has sought to reUeve flood problems but an overall approach 
to the management of flood waters has not been developed. The existing 
maintenance program is inadequate to fulfill the requirements of the designed 
channels to function properly upon the advent of a major storm. 

Statement of Need 

The community is in need of a water management program to assure that primary 
drainage facilities are consistent with development of the respective watersheds. The 
requirements of these facilities for adequate functioning is dependent upon zoning 
for land use and the associated stormwater runoff coefficients. The characteristics of 
runoff for a given typical area should be refined by further study. A land use plan 
for unclassified areas is necessary and updating of planning council maps is also 
required to provide basic data. This basic data collection process wall yield the 
information required by a water management program. 

Solutions 

A water management and flood plain program is essential for community 
development. Basic data supplied to the program yields flood plains dependent 
upon the size of the storm analyzed. Ten, twenty-five and one-hundred year 
frequency storms are reasonable for establishing flood channels, design flow rates 
and flood plains respectively for planning. The flood plains should be recorded on 

170 



the planning council or other appropriate topographic maps for review. These maps 
are subject to updating, alteration and revision with changes in basic data due to 
rezoning and/or increases in the data bank. These maps should be adopted as the 
official documents for the water management program. This is a water management 
anf flood plain program subject to continual review by governing authorities and the 
community for the provision of insight to future growth policies. 



B. COMPUTER PROGRAM 

A water management and flood plain program was established by the integrated use 
of computer programs to apply basic data to stream channel and retention basin 
characteristics. Stream channel analysis requires the interrelated use of water surface 
profile, runoff analysis and flood routing programs to establish flood channels, flow 
rates and flood plains corresponding to selected rainfall frequencies. Retention basin 
analysis required one computer program to estabhsh flood plains for various rainfall 
frequencies. The results of the programs are data for maintaining planning council 
maps, facihtating engineering analysis of flood problems and review by governing 
authorities and the community. These data must be updated periodically to reflect 
the effects of area growth on the drainage basins. 

C. DEPRESSION BASINS 

Of the many depressions in the area which serve as retention basins, over 1 200 were 
determined to be significant in the role of primary drainage facilities. To enhance 
analysis, these basins were classified according to one of four types: well drained, 
poorly drained, ponded, or solution cavern. Classification was determined by field 
analysis of vegetation and land use, thus providing data to be considered with soil 
type data to establish basin permeability rates. This information, combined with 
storage and overflow characteristics of the individual basins, provided input data for 
computer determination of the flood plain. Modification of basin characteristics 
(rezoning) warrants updating of the input data. The resulting flood plain may be 
altered according to the decisions and designs of the planners and engineers. 
Subsequently, the maps must be revised for maintenance of the water management 
and flood plain program. 

Existing structures were found to be located within the flood plain limits of 21 
depressions. Another one hundred thirty basins will overflow to neighboring basins. 
The only alternative to prevent flood damage to structures in retention basin 
watersheds is to insure their location is above the flood plain. 

D. STREAM BASINS 

Six major stream basins have been identified in the study area, each one being 
encompassed by a watershed of unique characteristics. The flood channel, flow rates 
and flood plain of each stream is dependent upon the percentage of rainfall that runs 
off and upon existing channel characteristics. Runoff coefficients (percent of rainfall 
runoff) are dependent upon the soil properties and land use of specific areas. An 
alteration of either will result in an alteration of the coefficient. Channel 
characteristics are described by cross-sections, density of vegetation, slope and 
existing structures which affect the flow rates at any point in the stream. The flow 



171 



rate and shape of the channel, at a point, establish the flood stage. The water 
management program must necessarily be flexible enough to allow for alteration of 
data reflecting runoff coefficients, channel characteristics and detention for flood 
plaining. The water management program offered by this report provides the 
method necessary for planners and engineers to update, alter or revise the flood 
channel, flow rate and flood plains for the stream basins of the area. 

The program also allows for the evaluation of alternates to reduce flood problems in 
addition to providing data for engineering analysis. The alternates considered to 
reduce or ehminate flood damage are; 

1) The "No— construction-in-the-flood-plain" approach requiring the 
delineation of the flood plain and hmiting development within 
these boundaries. Existing structures may be salvaged by 
acquisition or by elevating the structure above flood stages. 

2) The "Channelization" approach requiring modification and 
maintenance of the channel to provide greater flow capacity, thus 
reducing flood stages. 

3) The "Dike and Pump Facihties" approach requiring the 
construction and maintenance of barriers to flood waters for the 
protection of developed areas. 

4) The "Detention" approach providing temporary storage of flow to 
reduce downstream flood stages. 

5) The "Retention" approach which withholds excess runoff from 
the stream channel reducing the total flow. 

Each flood area of the stream basins was analyzed and all possible alternates for 
solving flood problems were reviewed. 

1. Hogtown Creek 

Runoff coefficients for the Hogtown Creek stream basin have been estabUshed 
indicating a change from 0.37 for existing conditions to 0.47 for future conditions. 
This increase in expected runoff will affect flood elevations in the flood plain by 
generally less than one foot. Flood plain elevations will be slightly greater in the 
upper reaches of the basin due to the relatively steep contour of the land. 

Six existing developed areas within the watershed are in danger of flooding by 
rainfall frequencies analyzed during this study. A hst of these areas with a 
description of feasible alternate solutions to flood relief follows: 

a) Clear Lake (Area 1) 

Runoff exceeding the capacity of Hailes Sink (about 67 cfs), the discharge 
point for Hogtown Creek, is stored in the Sugarfoot Prairie area causing 
the creek to flood the Clear Lake area. Forty eight homes are located 
within the flood plain Umits requiring a solution to relieve flood 
problems: 



172 



Alternate Water Management Plans 



Total 
Annual Cost Project Cost 



1) 

2) 

2) 

3) 
4) 

b) 



Construct Dike and Pump FacUities @ 
Existing Development 

Construct Dike and Pump FacUities @ 1-75 
with Spoil Removal 

Construct Dike and Pump Facilities @ 1-75 
without Spoil Removal 

Purchase the structures 

Raise houses in the flood plain 
above flood elevation 



$141,000 

5707,000 

$577,000 
$276,000 

S 60,000 



$1,435,000 

$7,121,000 

$5,852,000 
$3,686,000 

$ 794,000 



Downstream from SR26A West of 34th Street (Area 2) 



The existing channel in this reach of Hogtown Creek is inadequate to 
carry the peak discharge. Fifteen homes in the eastern section of 
Anglewood Subdivision, five apartments at Village 34 and the U. of F. 
animal laboratory are located in the flood plain with the possibility of 
other apartment buildings not shown on the topographic maps. 



Alternate Water Management Plans 

1) Construct Dike and Pump FacUities and 

Channel Improvements With SpoU Removal 

1) Construct DUce and Pump FacUities and 

Channel Improvements Without SpoU Removal 

Purchase the structures 



2) 
3) 

c) 





Total 


Annual Cost 


Project Cost 


$176,000 


$1,793,000 


$ 93,000 


$ 970,000 


$192,000 


$2,568,000 



Raise buUdings in the flood plain 
above flood elevation 

N. W. 8th Avenue Area (Area 3) 



$ 49,500 



$ 660,000 



The peak discharge received by the channel in these locations will 
overflow the banks to flood eight homes. 



Alternate Water Management Plans 

1) Construct dUce and pump facilities 
Construct major channels with 



2) 

2) 

3) 
4) 

d) 



SpoU Removal 

Construct major channels without 
SpoU Removal 

Purchase the houses 

Raise the houses in the flood plain 

Springstead Creek at Pine Forest Creek (Area 4) 



Annual Cost 
$ 26,100 

$569,000 

$302,000 
$ 38,800 
$ 10,000 



Total 
Project Cost 

$ 265,000 

$5,748,000 

$3,102,000 
$ 516,000 
$ 134,000 



The existing structure and channel at N. W. 6th Street is not adequate to 
carry the anticipated peak flow, causing flooding of University Mobile 
Home Park. 

Total 
Alternate Description Annual Cost Project Cost 



1) Improve tlie capacity of the 
structure and channel 

2) Purchase the structures in the flood plain 



$ 21.000 
$ 17.000 



$ 218.000 
$ 228.000 



73 



e) Possum Creek at N. W, 16th Avenue (Area 5) 

The existing structure under N. W. 16th Avenue is inadequate to carry 

anticipated peak flows and will cause flooding of 10 homes at the junction 

of Possum and Ridgeview Creeks. 

Total 

Alternate Water Management Plan Annual Cost Project Cost 

1) Improve the capacity of the structure 

and channel with spoil removal $ 53,000 $ 530,000 

1 ) Improve the capacity of the structure 

and channel without spoil removal $ 47,000 $ 476,000 

2) Purchase the houses $ 60,000 $ 796,000 

3) Raise the houses in the flood plain $ 9,000 $ 120,000 

Three Lakes Creek @ N. W. 34th Street (Area 6) 

The existing structure under N. W. 34th Street is not adequate to relieve 
flooding of one house. 

Total 
Alternate Water Management Plans Annual Cost Project Cost 

1) Improve the capacity of the structure 

and channel $ 4,700 $ 47,000 

2) Purchase the house $ 3,300 $ 44,000 

3) Raise the house in the flood plain $ 900 $ 12,000 

2. Tumbhn Creek 

Development of the Tumblin Creek basin is virtually complete with respect to the 
proposed land use plan. Hence, runoff coefficients for the basin indicate a small 
increase in value from 0.55 to 0.61, for future conditions. The subsequent increase 
in volume and peak discharge for the stream channel will not be significant. 

Danger of flooding will be reahzed by one major area in the basin. The area includes 
a large motel, one house and a major highway. Itemized feasible alternate solutions 
which would eliminate the problem are presented. 

a) U.S. 441 

The existing drainage structure at U.S. 441 has poor hydrauhc 
characteristics which will cause the University Inn and the house to the 
south to be flooded. 

Total 
Alternate Water Management Plans Annual Cost Project Cost 

1) Channel improvement $ 43,000 $ 430,000 

2) Purchase the flood prone structures $226,000 $3,008,000 

3) Raise the flood prone structures $ 14,400 $ 192,000 



74 



3. Sweetwater Branch 

Development within the stream basin has saturated the watershed with respect to 
the governing land use plan. A comparison of the runoff coefficients for existing and 
future conditions indicates no difference as may be expected. Likewise, the fiood 
elevations produced by existing and future conditions are the same for the land use 
plan. However, rezoning within the designated land use areas may eventually 
accumulate runoff coefficients and fiood stages of concern. Any rezoning of the area 
should be reviewed by the water management program. 

Presently, there are three areas in danger of suffering flood damage. Flooding of the 
buildings in each of these areas may be ehminated by replacing inadequate strucures. 

a) S.E. 4th Street (Area 1) 

Flooding of four houses in this area is caused by an inadequate drainage 

structure. 

Total 
Alternate Water Management Plans Annual Cost Project Cost 

1) Replace drainage structure $ 7,100 $ 71,000 

2) Purchase fiood prone structures $ 4,200 S 56,000 

3) Raise fiood prone structures $ 1,100 $ 14,000 

b) S. E. 7th Avenue, Rosewood Lateral (Area 2) 

Flooding of five houses in this area is also caused by an inadequate 
drainage structure. 

Alternate Water Management Plans 

1 ) Replace the drainage structures 

2) Purchase the fiood prone structures 

3) Raise the fiood prone structures 

c) S. E, 2nd Avenue, Rosewood Lateral (Area 3) 

Flooding of two homes in this area is also caused by inadequate drainage 

facihties. 

Tol .1 

Alternate Water Management Plans Annual Cost ProjeC Cost 

1) Replace the drainage structure 

2) Purchase tiie fiood prone structures 

3) Raise the fiood prone structures 





Total 


Annual Cost 


Project Co f 


$ 2,100 


S 22.0C/ 


$ 8,000 


S 1 06,00' ' 


$ 1.400 


S 18.000 



$ 3,100 


S 


3 1 .000 


$ 3,300 


$ 


44,(00 


$ 550 


$ 


7 :oo 



175 







Total 


A 


nnual Cost 


Project Cost 


$ 


8,800 


$ 89,000 


$ 


36,000 


$ 367,000 


$ 


24.000 


$ 248,000 


$ 


12.000 


$ 158,000 


$ 


4,500 


$ 60,000 



4. Lake Forest Creek 

Major sections of the Lake Forest Creek watershed are expected to remain 
undeveloped. For this reason, there is a relatively small change in the low runoff 
coefficient for existing conditions (0.36) compared to future conditions (0.43) 
imphed by the land use plan. Likewise, the flood stages for existing and future 
conditions indicate only slight variances. However, rezoning of the land use in this 
area will warrant re-evaluation of the flood plain and detention and/or retention 
may be desirable for flood protection and preservation of Newnan's Lake. 

Presently, only one area in the Lake Forest Creek drainage basin is subject to 
flooding. There are five endangered structures in the flood plain. 

a) S. E. 26th Terrace (Area 1) 

Alternate Water Management Plans 

1 ) Dike and Pump Facilities 

2) Channelization with spoil removal 

2) Channelization without spoil removal 

3) Purchase of flood prone structures 

4) Raise flood prone structures 



It may become necessary in the future to consider elevating the roadway where SR 
26 crosses Lake Forest Creek to avoid periodic flooding. 

5. Calf Pond Creek 

The future land use plan for the Calf Pond Creek watershed will cause the runoff 
coefficient to change from 0.32 for existing conditions to 0.49 for future 
conditions, a fairly significant increase. However, there are presently no structures in 
the flood plain for this basin. Rezoning of the area should not necessitate any 
retention or detention but an evaluation of the capacity and stability of the sink 
hole draining the basin should be considered. 

6. Little Hatchet Creek 

The Little Hatchet Creek drainage basin was described earher by a special study 
entitled "A Report on a Flood Plain and Water Control Program for the Headwaters 
of Little Hatchet, Turkey, Blues and Hogtown Creeks" and submitted by the 
engineers to the NCFRPC in October, 1973. Runoff coefficients were determined to 
change from 0.42 to 0.52 for the entire basin as it is developed to the future land 
use plan. However, major areas of the water shed were assumed to remain 
undeveloped and rezoning of the area will justify further evaluation. Much of the 
area is presently flooded periodically because it is a wetland, therefore substantial 
construction, maintenance and environmental costs will be realized if the area is to 
be developed according to the land use plan. 

Presently, the airport runway will receive flood waters which overflows the 
constructed channel. This problem should be eliminated for reasons of safety. 



176 



'9m 



Total 
Alternate Water Management Plans Annual Cost Project Cost 

Construct Dike Facilities $5,800 $ 58,000 

E. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION 

From the perspective of the environmental assessment of the various alternates for 
developing a water management program: 

1) The "No-construction" alternate with raising of homes in the 
delineated flood plain is the most desirable alternate due to low 
cost, maintenance and minimum adverse environmental effects 
with enhancement of long term productivity for the community. 

2) The "ChanneUzation" alternate is the least desirable alternate due 
to high cost, maintenance and adverse environmental effects with 
reduction of long term productivity for the community. 

3) The "Dike and Pumping Facilities" alternate is the most desirable 
construction alternate due to its few adverse environmental 
effects, moderate cost and maintenance, and enhancement of long 
term productivity. 

4) The "Detention and Retention" alternates are desirable when 
development of the watershed exceeds the carrying capacity of the 
basin as defined by the water management program. 

A complete water quantity and quahty monitoring program to supply basic data is 
needed for future analyses of the watersheds as the metropolitan area grows. A field 
investigation of the area has indicated the need for an erosion control ordinance to 
protect the basins from severe sedimentation resulting from the erosion of sites 
under development. 

F. LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE 

The City of Gainesville and Alachua County appear to have adequate legal authority 
to plan, finance, construct and operate a water management program. The City has 
already adopted a flood plain ordinance which restricts the development of property 
witliin the flood plain limits, and the County is considering taking similar action. 
The question arises as to whether the property owners should be reimbursed for loss 
of value of property so zoned. 

It is possible that the flood plain Umits may be established by the governing agency 
to accommodate the flood waters resulting from existing land development only. If 
so, all future development must be accompanied by retention or detention facilities 
to prevent expansion of the flood plain areas. The question then arises as to whom 
should bear the costs of constructing and operating such facilities. 

Administratively, the water management program to be implemented should be 
selected only after public hearings of the affected parties has been held. 



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SECTION 12 
RECOMMENDATIONS 



As a result of the findings and conclusions of this flood plain and water management study, 
it is recommended that: 

GENERAL 

1. Alachua County and the City of Gainesville place uniform 
development restrictions on the flood channel and flood plain areas 
delineated on the Council's topographic maps. The flood plain limits 
should be as designated for the 100-year storm and based on the 
proposed future land use plan. 

2. No alteration of or clearing or construction in the flood channel 
areas should be permitted, except as required for maintenance of 
existing or construction of new drainage facilities. 

3. Filling should be permitted in the flood plain areas only after it has 
been determined that such filling will not alter the flood plain limits. 
No buildings or structures that would be subject to flood damage 
should be constructed in the flood plain. The flood level of buildings 
constructed should be a minimum of one foot above the flood water 
elevation. 

4. A land use plan for each basin should be prepared and adopted to 
permit a degree of development in the basin which will not exceed 
the flood plain Umits estabhshed under recommendation 1. above. 
The land should then be zoned accordingly. 

5. Before any rezoning of land within the basin is approved, the effect 
on the flood plain and channel of the basin should be determined. If 
such rezoning will result in surface water runoff in excess of that 
allocated under the land use plan, the rezoning should not be 
approved, unless: (1) it is possible to change the flood plain Umits 
without damage or loss to others; or, (2) on-site retention facihties 
are constructed and operated to prevent discharge of storm waters in 
excess of that allocated under the land use plan. 

6. The basin drainage divides as shown on the Council's topographic 
maps should be maintained unless it is possible to break a divide 
without damage or loss to others. 

7. Recognizing the possible discrepancies between actual conditions and 
the soils classifications, runoff coefficients and topographic maps 
used for this study, the estabhshed flood channel and plain limits 
should be re-evaluated by the computer program and modified 
accordingly as new and more reUable data are made available. 



178 



8. A continual maintenance program should be implemented to 
maintain full flow capacity of existing improved channels and 
structures to decrease potential flooding, 

9. An ordinance is needed to control soil erosion during construction of 
new buildings, roadways and other significant structures. 

10. A complete water quantity and quality monitoring program should 
be initiated for the study area to provide basic data for future 
analysis to refine and extend the present study. 

HOGTOWN CREEK BASIN 

11. The depression north and west of the Royal Park Mall should be 
maintained to provide the storage capacity indicated by the NCFRPC 
topographic maps as a flood reduction measure. 

12. A water management program consisting of either: (1) raising the 
houses in the fiood plain above fiood elevation, at a total project cost 
of S794,000; or, (2) construction of dike and pump facilities at the 
developed area, at a total project cost of $1,435,000 should be 
implemented to protect developments in the flood plain in the Clear 
Lake area. 

13. A water management program consisting of construction of dike and 
pump facilities and channel improvements, at a total project cost of 
$1,793,000, should be implemented to protect developments in the 
flood plain immediately south of University Avenue. 

14. A water management program consisting of either: (1) raising the 
houses in the flood plain above flood elevation, at a total project cost 
of $134,000; or, (2) construction of dike and pump faciUties at a 
total project cost of $265,000, should be implemented to protect the 
developments in the flood plain area bounded by University Avenue, 
N. W. 34th Street, 8th Avenue, and N. W. 22nd Street. 

15. A water management program consisting of improvements to the 
structure and channel capacity, at a total project cost of $218,000, 
should be implemented to protect developments in the flood plain 
along Springstead Creek and Pine Forest Creek. 

16. A water management program consisting of either: (1) raising the 
houses in the flood plain above flood elevation, at a total project cost 
of $120,000; or (2) improving the structure and channel capacity at 
a total project cost of $530,000 should be implemented to protect 
developments in the flood plain along Possum Creek near N. W. 16th 
Avenue. 

17. A water management program consisting of either: (1) raising the 
houses in the flood plain above flood elevation, at a total project cost 
of $12,000 or (2) improving the structure and channel capacity, at a 
total project cost of $47,000, should be implemented to protect 
developments in the flood plain area along Three Lakes Creek at N. 
W. 34th Street. 



179 



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1 8. A hydro-geologic investigation on the use of other solutio caverns to 
supplement the discharge through Haile Sink should be undertaken, 
and studies on methods for preserving the capacity of Haile Sink 
should be initiated. 

TUMBLIN CREEK 

19. A water management program consisting of improvements to the 
channel, at a total project cost of $430,000 should be implemented 
to protect development in the flood plain near U. S. 441. 

SWEETWATER BRANCH 

20. A water management program consisting of either: (1) raising the 
houses i the flood plain above flood elevation, at a total project cost 
of $14,400; or, (2) acquiring the houses, at a total project cost of 
$56,000 should be implemented along the stream at S. W. 4th 
Street. 

21. A water management program consisting of either: (1) raising the 
houses in the flood plain above flood elevation, at a total project cost 
of $18,000; or (2) replacing the drainage structures at a total project 
cost of $22,100, should be implemented in the S. E. 7th Avenue area 
on Rosewood Lateral. 

22. A water management program consisting of either: (1) raising the 
houses in the flood plain above flood elevation, at a total project cost 
of $7,200; or (2) replacing the drainage structure, at a total project 
cost of $31,000 should be implemented in the S. E. 2nd Avenue area 
on Rosewood Lateral. 

LAKE FOREST CREEK 

23. A water management program consisting of either: (1) raising the 
houses in the flood plain above flood elevation, at a total project cost 
of $60,000; or (2) construction of dike and pump facihties, at a total 
project cost of $89,000 should be implemented in the S. E. 26th 
Terrace area. 

LITTLE HATCHET CREEK 

24. A water management plan consisting of constructing dike facilities, 
at a total project cost of $58,000 should be implemented at the 
airport. 

CALF POND CREEK 

25. A hydro-geologic investigation should be performed on the active 
sink which serves as the outlet for Calf Pond Creek to determine the 
sink capacity and to verify the flood plain Umits. 



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